Bro. Robert Eugene Juthner, P.D.D.G.M.
PART 1 - INTRODUCTION
Though the purpose of this paper is partly characterized by its title, the author will attempt to go beyond the mere justification for conducting Masonic research, by discussing some of the do's and don'ts of research writing, and research into matters of Masonic interest. In covering these matters which the writer believes to be essential for research to produce honest and unbiased results, the reader should keep in mind that none of the statements herein are meant to be dogmatic or to discourage the would-be, first-time investigator by the sheer number of considerations to be obeyed; the intention is quite to the contrary: to encourage Masonic research which will lead to useful conclusions and, through this paper, to provide a set of guidelines which can be tailored to specific applications.
Ordinarily, the division of a paper into parts, and the use of sub-titles should be avoided. In this case it is expected that some future researchers may want to use this paper as a reference manual, therefore, to facilitate locating points of interest, the paper is divided into four parts: an introduction, a discussion of the types of research, the tools of research, and writing the research report.
As will be quite evident to the Masonic reader, the title was chosen in allusion to a certain passage in the General Charge given during the installation ceremonies in this and many other Grand Jurisdictions. There it is said that
The object . . . of meeting in the lodge is of a two-fold nature, namely, moral instruction and social intercourse. Our meetings are intended to cultivate and enlighten the mind, to induce the habit of virtue, and to strengthen the fundamental principles of our order: Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth. (and)..... the chief point in Freemasonry (is) to endeavour to be happy ourselves, and to communicate that happiness to others. (1)
There are several more pertinent statements following the quoted passage, but it may suffice for the purposes of this paper just to recall this description of the object of meeting in what could be termed a "degree-granting institution", namely a constituent lodge devoted to the making of Masons. How then does a research lodge differ from her members' mother lodges?
1 Alberta, The Grand Lodge of, Ceremony for investing
the Officers of a Lodge, 1973, p. 35
A recent Canadian Masonic publication, Meeting the Challenge, devotes the following few lines to a description of a research lodge:
Research lodges and other masonic research groups hold regular meetings at which original papers are read; these papers are then published in the form of "Transactions" which are sent to all members of the group. Most of the papers deal with matters of history. Sometimes as well these bodies will try to provide answers to specific questions about the reasons for certain Masonic customs. The lodges are usually permitted to accept
non-resident members into a "Correspondence Circle." (2)
This description fits FIAT LUX LODGE OF RESEARCH quite well, but it is the sincere hope of this writer that papers dealing with "matters of history" will not occupy the number one position among future research work, but that some of the work will be aimed at providing valid and reliable data which can be used for better informed decision-making on the floor of Grand Lodge.
Mackey's Encyclopedia of Freemasonry is silent on the subject of research lodges, a circumstance easily explained by the fact that its copyrighted first edition dates from 1873, whereas Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076 of London, the first research lodge, was warranted in 1884, Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia, copyright 1961, offers an enumeration of research lodges and associations in the British Isles, the United States, and even Canada by mentioning the Toronto Society for Masonic Study and Research, but it neglects to mention those in other parts of the world, such as Austria, Finland, France, Germany, Guyana, New South Wales, New Zealand, South Africa, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria (Australia) and Western Australia. (A more complete listing may be found in the appendix to this paper.) Coil justly accords Quatuor Coronati the status of premier research lodge in the world,
. . . which has furnished the example for all subsequent
research lodges. (3)
He is less kind to others when he goes on to say,
The name (research lodge) has, however, been more popular than has actual research, so that the title is often used by lodges that do very little research. Such a lodge requires a working membership of dedicated students and a location near one of the great Masonic libraries . . . (4)
It is well for the brethren of a fledgling research lodge to heed Brother Coil's warning regarding the quality of actual research work. What an Alberta lodge can do about his other statement, concerning the proximity of "one of the great Masonic libraries" remains to be seen or, in other words, poses a problem to be solved.
Part VIII of the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Alberta provides for research lodges in this Grand Jurisdiction. Article 1000 (1) states,
Lodges for the purpose of conducting research in any or all aspects of Craft Masonry may he formed with the consent of the Grand Master and The Grand Lodge of Alberta. (5)
2 Canada in the Province of Ontario, Grand Lodge of, Meeting the
Challenge, 1976, p. 72
3 H. W. Coil, Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia, 1961, p. 523
5 Alberta, Grand Lodge of, Constitution, 1980, p. 97A
Extracts from other significant passages are:
1010 (1) Research Lodges may admit as subscribing members those who desire to be aware of and support the progress of Masonic
research in Alberta, but who do not desire full membership . . . (6)
1012 (2) Research Lodges shall not initiate, pass, or raise candidates, but when tyled may exemplify parts or all of any degree of Craft Masonry. (7)
Of these three articles, the first quoted gives an extremely broad mandate to a research lodge, namely to conduct research in any or all aspects of Craft Masonry. The only restriction implied is in the word "Craft", but there is no limitation as to Masonic Craft rites practised throughout the world. Likewise, and fortunately, there is also no restriction as to the topic or field of concentration, such as history, organization, lineage, jurisprudence, the liberal arts and social sciences, ritual and symbolism, and philosophy. Had the Masonic lawgivers expanded on that mandate, the challenge to the brethren in a research lodge would have diminished.
The second quotation corresponds to the statement by Coil, quoted earlier, regarding correspondence circles, or subscribing memberships, as they are termed in Alberta. A pool of subscribing members is important, not so much to finance I:he research lodge's publications, as it is more likely that in case of deficit the regular members will pick up the slack, but to enlarge the audience and thus to make the efforts of the researchers and authors worth-while. Implied in this is the desire to raise the work of the research lodge above the suspicion of self-centredness to the level of service to the Craft at large.
The third quotation was included here to emphasize that it is not in the province of the research lodge to make Masons but, if found desirable, to make degrees of Craft Masonry, or parts thereof, the object of exemplification. This particular aspect may remain among the rare occasions in the life of the research lodge, but the mechanism for it is embodied in the Constitution.
All of these last three quotations assist us in answering the question "what is the object of meeting in a research lodge?" Quite evidently, many more objects or objectives can be added, introducing the opinions of learned and experienced brethren; for the purposes of this paper, however, the above references to existing literature shall suffice. Aside from this, how shall one justify the formation of a research lodge? There are no statistical data to support a voiced need for such a body, mainly because there had been no prior research into that problem! Therefore, the following statement is completely unresearched; it is pure conjecture on part of the writer, but probably quite accurate: There was a desire for in-depth studies into matters Masonic among some (by far not all) brethren in the jurisdiction, which crystallized into rumblings communicated to some in authority. They in turn, selected one brother with proven potential to carry the torch, and to gather around him others of like inclination so as to make something tangible out of what had hitherto been a mass of primordial protoplasm. - This may have been the way in which FIAT LUX LODGE OF RESEARCH came about.
6 ibid., p. 97B
7 ibid., p. 97C
Before we go any further, it is well to define the term research. We have all heard the supposed witticism to the effect that when one copies from one source he is guilty of plagiarism, but when
he copies from several sources, he has conducted research! That is not very kind. The unabbreviated Oxford International Dictionary offers the following definition:
An investigation directed to the discovery of some fact by careful study of a subject; a course of critical or scientific inquiry. (8)
The key words here are "discovery", "careful" and "critical".
A Dictionary of Psychology (by James Drever) defines research thus:
Systematic scientific investigation in pursuit of knowledge, or confirmation, in any field. (9)
Standard dictionaries provide various, mostly similar and never contradictory definitions, but they rarely enlarge on the intricacies of the research process. There are different approaches to research, partly because of the difference in raw data, and partly because of the difference between fields of study. To explain, there is a marked difference between the study of the behaviour of rats in a clinical experiment, research into historical events, and an opinion poll. Naturally, we deal with entirely different data and must, therefore, use an entirely different approach each time. Tyrus Hillway distinguishes between three "Types of Research" (10). He calls these types "Fact-Finding", "Critical Interpretation" and, for the want of a better name "Complete Research." "Fact-Finding Research" consists of a search for facts without any attempt to generalize or to use these facts to solve a problem. This type of research may be important in laying the ground work for further studies. Hillway explains by use of the following examples, which could easily be translated into Masonic areas of concern:
Suppose a scholar is investigating the history of a certain college. He collects old records, catalogues, newspaper accounts, letters, diaries, and so on to establish the facts of the institution's growth and development. . . . Unless he is seeking to prove some generalization about the college, his task essentially consists of factfinding.
The same would ordinarily be true for a scholar attempting to write the biography of some notable person in his field. Unless the study goes into such matters as an evaluation of the person's character, an assessment of the benefits derived from his contributions to the field, or judgments of a similar nature, the work involved in the study amounts almost entirely to fact-finding.
A scholar who compiles a bibliography of all books and articles published on a certain topic . . . or a statistical examination of . . . any one of a vast number of activities in scholarship which involve making a record of the facts relating to a situation which is being investigated - such a scholar is conducting research on the factfinding level. (11)
8 Oxford International Dictionary, 1958, p. 1712
9 Drever, A Dictionary of Psychology, 1964, p. 248 10 Hallway, introduction to Research, Ch. 7, pp. 99-106 11 Ibid., p. 100
Freemasonry, closely connected to philosophy and literature, may
however be dealing with ideas a great deal more than with facts. We realize that much, if not all of our traditional history has no foundation whatsoever in recorded history, and is included in our teachings - not because it is historically true - but because of the great and immutable Truths (with a capital T) it conveys. Such research may then consist primarily of a critical interpretation of these ideas. Hillway states,
Probably the only method of approach to the question would be an analysis and classification of the opinions expressed and a critical interpretation of them, showing in a logical way the strength and weakness, the reasonableness or unreasonableness, of each opinion found and of any further ideas on the matter which the scholar himself might have. Then, having reasoned out in his own mind a logical and acceptable answer to the question, the scholar might state this answer as his own considered opinion. This often results in an essay rather than in a research report. (12)
We can readily see the difference between these two approaches; in the first case we dealt with fact-finding and its reporting; in the other, where conclusions rest chiefly upon logic and reasoned opinion, we deal with critical interpretation. This process is not without value, especially in Masonic research, because it enables us to arrive at conclusions on matters about which clearly established facts are scarce or even non-existent. Hillway mentions three particular characteristics which must be present in critical interpretation. First, the argument must agree with known facts and principles in the field under investigation; second, the arguments must be clear and reasonable, and must follow logic; the steps in reasoning that led to the conclusions must be clearly demonstrable, and the whole reasoning must be " . . . so impeccably honest and so thoroughly complete that the reader will be. . . impelled by it to accept the scholar's conclusions. Third, the argument must have an outcome representing the reasoned opinion of the researcher, an opinion based on accepted facts and principles, and supported by logic as well as all available evidence. In this context Hillway warns against conclusions which rely on the scholar's intuitive or general impressions rather than upon specific and reasoned argument. (13)
Hillway's third type of research, which he calls Complete Research, makes use of both fact-finding and reasoning. Fact-finding alone does not usually solve problems, and critical interpretation, while often meant to solve a problem may not always be based on factual evidence but sometimes relies on mere speculation. Complete research, on the other hand, is said to have the following characteristics: first, there has to be a problem to be solved; second, it requires a body of evidence Âmostly provable facts and occasionally expert opinions -; third, analysis of that evidence and its testing with regard to the problem; fourth, arranging the evidence into logical arguments so as to lead to the solution of the problem; and fifth, a definite answer or conclusion solving the problem. (14)
From the foregoing it is evident that Complete Research makes great demands on the scholar as it requires long and painstaking search for factual evidence, complete searches of available literature, and the weighing of the results of previous investigations done by others.
12 ibid., pp. 101-102
13 Ibid., pp. 102-103 14 Ibid., pp. 103-105
Another authority on research, John W. Best of Butler University, stresses the point that "Research involves gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose from primary or first-hand sources. . . . merely reorganizing or restating what is already known and what has already been written is not research." (15)
This verdict is apt to deliver a stunning blow to both the efforts and the ego of this writer who, therefore,must seek solace in the hope of bringing into focus,for the purposes of research to be conducted by members of FIAT LUX LODGE OF RESEARCH, some of the basic elements of scientific inquiry already well known to the research community.
Best points out that
Research always involves an analysis of the relationships between causes and effects which imply the possibilities of empirical testing. Certain interesting problems do not lend themselves to research procedures because they are metaphysical; they cannot be tested empirically. Research rejects revelation and dogma as methods of gaining reliable knowledge and accepts only what can be verified by observation. (16)
It is well for the would-be researcher in matters Masonic to remember this because so much in Freemasonry is in the realm of metaphysics. This statement is not meant to discourage the Masonic scholar from delving into areas such as philosophy or symbolism, quite the contrary, but to emphasize the importance of the right choice of research method which lends itself to solving the problem at hand.
What Hillway called an "impeccably honest" approach, Best puts into these words:
The researcher strives to eliminate personal feeling and bias. There is no attempt to persuade or to prove an emotionally-held conviction. The emphasis is on testing rather than on proving the hypothesis. Although absolute objectivity is probably as elusive as pure righteousness, the researcher tries to suppress bias and emotion in his analysis. (17)
This passage should be read, and re-read, until firmly entrenched in the mind and attitude of every Masonic researcher. Too often personal bias rears its ugly, or rather unscientific, head in papers delivered before Masonic audiences, something that, hopefully, is never to happen in this lodge. But, what does this mean? This "impeccable honesty" or "absence of bias," demanded of any researcher and, therefore also of the Masonic scholar, directs him to report on all of his findings and to base his conclusions and recommendations on everything unearthed by him without deleting what has come up which contradicts his original hypothesis, or pet idea. In other words, the outcome of one's research project might completely contrast a point one wanted to make but, nevertheless, it must be reported. Only that constitutes honest research, no matter how unpopular the conclusions may be. Therefore, research must be a process of testing, rather than proving, implying an objectivity that lets the data lead where they may.
15 Best,' Research in Education, 1970, p. 9
17 ibid., p. 10
Hallway, cited earlier in this paper, also has an answer to the question,
What is not Research?
The beginning scholar sometimes imagines that, when he has recorded the opinions of a great many experts upon some subject and then announced his own opinion, he has done research. This is not the case. To know the opinions of others may be helpful, but it solves no problems. Problem solving can be accomplished scientifically only through gathering and weighing the factual evidence.
Furthermore, the beginning scholar is likely to think that, because he has invented a plausible theory to explain the phenomenon he is investigating, his work has been completed. The theory still remains to be tested and proved - that is, the scholar must marshal his evidence in support of his idea. Too many scholars fall in love with hypotheses which have no support except their inventors' faith. (18)
Let it not be said that all this is well as far as the world of science is concerned but that it has no application to Masonic lay research, as witness the entry customarily printed in the inside cover of Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, the transactions of the premier research lodge. Under the heading "About the Quatuor Coronati Lodge" we read, among other things,
Inevitably they (the founders) became known as the Authentic School", leaders in a new style of Masonic Research which shunned those baseless and imaginary studies that had bedeviled Craft historians for more than a century. (19)
Although the reference here is primarily to previous efforts to link modern Freemasonry with hoar antiquity for the purpose of lending more respectability and to overawe the reader, the articles published in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, and the integrity of the editor's blue-pencil evident in them, show beyond any doubt that the "impeccable honesty" referred to earlier is rigidly applied to their publications, regardless of theme. This we must emulate in FIAT LUX and its publication Vox Lucis.
PART 2 - TYPES OF RESEARCH
Earlier in this paper we have discussed Hallway's three types of research, the "fact-finding", the "critical interpretation", and the so-called "complete research." To this writer's mind they are not so much types, but rather methods, or possibly levels of research, thereby reserving the term "type" to a characterization of three entirely different kinds of research. These are agreed on by many authors as Historical Research, Descriptive Research and Experimental Research. Historical Research is said to describe what was, Descriptive Research what is, and Experimental Research what will be.
Obtaining knowledge about the past has always intrigued men in general, and Freemasons in particular, but the historian's approach has changed considerably through the ages. It was not uncommon among early writers to create
18 Hillway, op.cit., p. 106
19 Quatuor Coronati, A.Q.C., any issue
literary masterpieces in place of objective reports of
happenings. Also, for centuries, objective truth often yielded to a glorification of the church or the state. This state of affairs has been largely overcome by now, although at times personal or national bias is still evident in the reporting. Properly done, historical research is carried out by collecting facts from the past, by examining and verifying them, and by presenting those facts in a report that will stand the test of critical examination. Historical research, therefore, is a critical search for truth. When engaged in gathering the facts, primary sources such as the testimonies of eye witnesses or actual objects used in the past, relics that can be directly traced to the event under investigation, are the basic materials of historical research.
Secondary sources may be less trustworthy, as they represent materials based on third-, fourth- and fifth-hand information. They can, however, serve useful purposes by leading the researcher to work previously done in the field and to primary sources which he should consult. During the stage of examining and verifying, the researcher checks each fact or account of past happenings meticulously, to determine its trustworthiness, and if suspecting that a document contains errors, to endeavour to detect whether they are unintentional or deliberate deceptions. A 20th Century historian must be careful not to read into documents of earlier periods the conceptions of later times, and he will really have to show his competence when comparing conflicting testimonies pertaining to the same event or condition in history.
Not unlike the physical scientist, the historian too formulates hypotheses to be tested, but the types of hypotheses and procedures for testing differ from those of the physical scientist because some of the factors he is investigating may be unmeasurable or unrecorded, and historical phenomena may have many more complicated interrelationships than physical science phenomena. Historians cannot set up experiments in which they can control conditions; therefore they must confine their examinations to the relevant data available. Their credibility judgments may then be arrived at by the use of a confidence scale, ranging from near certainty at one end to considerable doubt on the other. It follows that historical researchers must above all be cautious to a fault, in accepting evidence as reliable and trustworthy.
The reliability of a historical research report, however, is not merely determined by how critically the historian examined his source materials but also by how well informed he is about the past and the present. His interpretation of the struggles among the tribes of Israel, for example, will depend a great deal on how much he knows about early Jewish society, his knowledge of psychology and human behaviour and his familiarity with the past and the present, so as not to misinterpret important events from the past. In this context, Marc Block writes,
. . . misunderstanding of the present is the inevitable consequence of ignorance of the past. But a man may wear himself out just as fruitlessly in seeking to understand the past, if he is totally ignorant of the present. (20)
Earlier in this paper the statement was made that "Historical Research is said to describe what was." This can be an end in itself, but it is more likely that the researcher would want to generalize, and predict future events on the basis of his findings, as physical scientists would do. Not all historians agree that this can be done. Those taking the negative view do so because, they say, past events were often unplanned and
developed because of the influence of one or few individuals leading to results which will never be repeated; witness
20 Block, M., The Historian's Craft, 1953, p. 43
reports may suffer from doubtful competence or doubtful objectivity; the historian cannot control the conditions of observation or manipulate the significant variables. Those who contend that historical investigation may have characteristics of scientific research activity present these arguments: the historian also delimits a problem, formulates hypotheses, gathers and analyzes data, tests hypotheses, and formulates generalizations or conclusions; he may have witnesses who have observed the event from different vantage points and he subjects the evidence to critical analysis in order to establish its authenticity, truthfulness and accuracy; in reaching conclusions he employs principles of probability as do physical scientists; and
Although it is true that the historian cannot control the variables directly, this limitation also characterizes most behavioral research, particularly nonlaboratory investigations in sociology, social psychology, and economics. (21)
On the topic of generalization in historical research, M. I. Finley comments:
. . . the question at issue is the nature of the historian's function. Is it only to recapture the individual, concrete events of a past age, as in a mirror, so that the progress of history is merely one of rediscovering lost data and of building bigger and better reflectors? If so, then the chronicle is the only correct form for his work. But if it is to understand Âhowever one chooses to define the word - then it is to generalize, for every explanation is, or implies, one or more generalizations. (22)
On the writing of the historical research report, Best says,
No less challenging than research itself is the writing of the report, which calls for creativity in addition to the qualities of imagination and resourcefulness . . . Research reports should be written in a style that is dignified and objective. However, the historian is permitted a little more freedom in reporting. (23)
To conclude this section of the present paper, an enumeration of common faults which plague beginners' historical-research projects is given below, again in the words of John W. Best:
1. Problem too broadly stated.
2. Tendency to use easy-to-find secondary sources of data, rather than sufficient primary sources . . .
3. Inadequate historical criticism of data, due to failure to establish authenticity of sources and trustworthiness of data. For example, there is often a tendency to accept a statement as necessarily true when several observers agree. It is possible that one may have influenced the other, or that all were influenced by the same inaccurate source of information.
4. Poor logical analysis resulting from:
(a) Oversimplification - failure to recognize the fact that causes of events are more often multiple and complex than single
(b) overgeneralization on the basis of insufficient evidence, and false reasoning by analogy, basing conclusions upon superficial similarities of situations.
21 Best, op. cit., pp. 98, 99
22 Finley, M.I., "Generalizations in Ancient History", 1963,
23 Best, op.cit., pp. 109, 110
(c) Failure to interpret words and expressions in the light of their accepted meaning in an earlier period.
(d) Failure to distinguish between significant facts in a situation and those that are irrelevant or unimportant.
5. Expression of personal bias, as revealed by statements lifted out of context for purposes of persuasion, assuming too generous or uncritical an attitude toward a person or idea (or being too unfriendly or critical), excessive admiration for the past . . . or an equally unrealistic admiration for the new or contemporary, assuming that all change represents progress.
6. Poor reporting in a style that is dull and colourless, too flowery or flippant, too persuasive or of the "soap-box" type, or improper in usage. (24)
Descriptive Research describes and interprets present conditions, prevailing practices, trends and attitudes, presently held beliefs and points of view, or ongoing processes. In the words of John Best,
The process of descriptive research goes beyond mere gathering and tabulating of data. It involves . . . analysis and interpretation of the meaning or significance of what is described . . . comparison or contrast . . . measurement, classification, analysis and interpretation.
. . . merely describing what is does not comprise the entire research process . . . conclusions will be based upon comparisons, contrasts, or causal relationships of various kinds. Thus, the discovery of meaning is the focus of the whole process. (25)
We are here dealing with a research method which is particularly appropriate for investigations in the behavioral sciences, and therefore of interest to a Masonic research body, provided its members set their goals higher than the mere reporting of what transpired in the past. The results of descriptive research, in Freemasonry, may well lead to strategies and policies from which future generations of Masons can profit. By its techniques, old errors can be discovered, and new and better ways could be pointed out in the conclusions. Best lists three types of information, requisite to such a study, and three steps required to solve a given problem:
The first type of information is based upon present conditions.....gathered by a systematic description and analysis of the present situation.
The second type of information involves what we may want. What conditions are desirable?
The third type of information is concerned with how to get there. It may involve the opinions of experts, who presumably know best how to reach the goal.
The first step involves systematic analysis of present conditions. The second step projects goals for the future. Step three considers how to reach those goals, which have been established by the analysis of step two. (26)
24 ibid., p. 110
25 Ibid., pp. 116, 117
26 Ibid., pp. 118, 119
Not all writers are in agreement on how to classify descriptive studies. One convenient break-down into three categories would list (1) survey studies, (2) interrelationship studies, and (3) developmental studies. The following discussion will explain them.
When trying to solve problems, governmental, political, and industrial or business organizations often conduct surveys, be they broad or narrow in scope. Survey data may be collected (by the use of questionnaires or interviews, or both) from every member of a given population or from a carefully selected, representative sample.
The survey method gathers data from a relatively large number of cases at a particular time. It is not concerned with characteristics of individuals as individuals. It is concerned with the generalized statistics that result when data are abstracted from a number of individual cases. It is essentially cross-sectional. (27)
One well known type of this category is the Opinion Poll, widely applied to gauge public opinion in matters of political prognosis or of market research. It may well have its application to matters Masonic, especially when the law-givers and organizers are willing to listen to the rank and file.
In our culture, where so many opinions on controversial subjects are expressed by well-organized special-interest groups, it is important to find out what the people think. Without a means of public opinion, the views of only the highly-organized minorities are effectively presented. (28)
Another type of the same category which may have practical value in Masonic research, is Documentary Analysis. Here, written records, rather than opinions, are examined, much as in historical research (but historical research is more often concerned with the distant past, and descriptive research with the present). Documentary Analysis may aid in describing present conditions and practices that prevail in various lodges and their communities, or in grand lodges and their respective states or provinces. By it we can find not only the apparent differences in practices and customs, but also the underlying attitudes, biases, interests, values, and psychological trends of the populations investigated. Other survey types common to areas such as business and industry, e.g., job analyses and market research, are outside the scope of this paper.
When it is not sufficient to obtain a description of the existing
status of the matter under investigation, and it is necessary to trace the relative interdependence of two or more groups, or phenomena, then one of the types of interrelationship studies will apply. Within that category, some writers distinguish between Case Studies, Causal-comparative Studies and Correlation Studies. Not all of these are seen by this writer to be of benefit to research projects conducted by a research lodge. For example, it is doubtful whether a method heavily relying on mathematical processes as they are involved in correlation studies, will have any widespread application to Masonic research.
In a Case Study, an extensive investigation is carried out into a specific social unit - a person, family, group, or community. Such institutions as business groups, churches, corrective institutions, hospitals, industrial concerns,
27 Ibid., p. 120
28 Ibid., p. 125
social service agencies, schools and universities, and fraternal organizations have been studied by this method in the past. The focus of attention, in a Case Study, is on the typicalness of the organization studied, to isolate all factors which sets it apart from others in society.
When the focus of attention is directed toward a single case or a limited number of cases, the process is personalized . . . The case method probes deeply, and intensively analyzes interaction between the factors that produce change or growth..... showing development over a period of time. (29)
As in social research, case studies have been made of all sizes of communities and all types of individuals belonging to various racial, political, religious or trade groups, or having achieved positive ends in life such as executives, leaders or other men and women of fame, or just the opposite, such as alcoholics, drug-addicts, criminals and juvenile delinquents, and school drop-outs. To cite two examples, demittees from Masonry could be studied by this method in order to formulate hypotheses for overcoming the problem, as could Masons in general, to ascertain what motivated them to join in the first place.
Case studies are similar to surveys, but instead of gathering data concerning a few factors from many respondents, an intensive study is made of a limited number of representative cases. The case study can reveal a wealth of information that the survey cannot produce. Pauline Young claims that,
. . . the most meaningful numerical studies in social science are those which are linked with exhaustive case studies describing accurately the interrelationships of factors and of processes. (30)
All types of studies have their own limitations. When conducting a case study, the investigator must guard against his own and his subject's desire to present the right answer, against poor memory, unconscious biases as well as deliberate deception, data based on faulty perception, and the like. When properly conducted, case studies can make useful contributions to the body of knowledge.
Causal-comparative Studies go one step further. They are of use when the investigator tries to discover not only what a phenomenon is like, but, if possible, how and why it occurs. They lend themselves to finding out what factors accompany
certain events, conditions, or practices. There may or may not be a place for Causal-comparative research in Masonic studies, and it would be very interesting to see the outcome of such a probe into the interrelationship of educational lodge programming and the effect it has on members' attendance, or a score of other possibilities. This method has been used outside our sphere of immediate concern in studies dealing with highway deaths and their causes and in cancer research, not all of which is laboratory-based. It must be recognized, however, that this method cannot be applied indiscriminately, and that conclusions must be carefully examined.
One of the most serious dangers of causal-comparative research is the post-hoc fallacy, the conclusion that, because two factors go together, one is the cause and the other the effect . . . Failure to single out the really significant factor, failure to recognize that events often have multiple rather than single causes, basing conclusions on a too limited number of occurrences, and failure to recognize that factors may go together without having a cause-effect relationship, may lead the researcher to false or misleading conclusions. (31)
29 Ibid., p. 127
30 Young, P.V., Scientific Social Surveys and Research, 1956,
31 Best, op.cit., pp. 131,132
The category of developmental studies will be dealt with here under two sub-headings: Follow-up and Trend Studies. These are concerned not only with the existing status of phenomena under investigation and their interrelationships, but also with the changes that occur as time goes on. Time may mean a matter of months, or of years.
Follow-up Studies, by some writers termed Growth Studies, are conducted, basically, to establish what individuals had profited from certain experiences as time progressed. From this brief explanation it is quite evident that this is one method of research which is meaningful to the educator. However, an attempt will be made to suggest an application of the method to certain Masonic
The follow-up study investigates individuals what has happened to them, and what has been the impact upon them of the institution and its program. By examining their status or seeking their opinions, one may get some idea of the adequacy or inadequacy of the institution's program. (32)
The "institution's program", in Masonic terms, may well be the approach taken by a lodge, or its Master, regarding the education of candidates, the enlightenment of older members, or any and all activities and fraternal interrelationships in the life of a lodge. The newly raised brother, when asked, may say that he was impressed, and he may add some other complimentary comments. A Follow-up Study, five, ten or twenty years later, may yield valuable information regarding the "adequacy or inadequacy" of the "program". (It should be understood that all this is not meant to encroach on the basic teachings, tenets and philosophy of Freemasonry.)
Trend Studies, also termed Predictive Studies could, at least in theory, be applied to matters of Masonic concern; whether or not a full study of that nature will ever be conducted in this jurisdiction, remains to be seen. Outside Masonry such studies
are of value, as they may effectively guide business, industry and community leaders in their decision making duties. These studies are to identify trends and to predict what is likely to take place in the future. This type of research may combine the historical, documentary, and survey techniques. The researcher gathers information from documentary sources that describe past and present events or conditions and, after comparing the data, i.e., studying the rate of change and the direction it takes, he predicts events or conditions which may prevail in the future.
This type of study furnishes valuable data for planning programs, in whatever area they may be. of course, such predictions are estimates, representing tentative conclusions only. Wars, economic recessions, great technological discoveries, and many other unforeseen events could hasten or arrest the process of growth or development. (33)
Because of the many unforeseeable factors connected with social change, trend analyses may vary greatly in certainty of prediction: the long-range type is merely an estimate, short-term predictions possess greater certainty.
32 Ibid., p. 135
33 ibid., p. 136
The third type of research, Experimental Research, may be the most sophisticated of the types discussed, and it is widely applied in areas where controlled experiments can be conducted to test hypotheses relating to what results will be obtained if certain conditions are met. Often, such studies involve control groups which are not exposed to the same changes as the experimental groups studied. It could be argued that even this method has its application to the study of phenomena identified within a voluntary organization such as the Freemasons, but it would take a great deal of convincing this writer that an experiment involving Masons, or Lodges, or both, could be conÂducted, and could, at the same time, serve a useful purpose and satisfy a definite need.
PART 3 - TOOLS OF RESEARCH
Very early in the planning stage of a research project the investigator will choose the type of research procedure which he determines to yield the kind of data necessary to test his hypothesis. He will weigh the merits of the various methods for collecting evidence, and from the available tools, he will select the most appropriate for his purpose.
Each inquiry begins with the statement of the problem; from it arises the formulation of a hypothesis or hypotheses. The nature of the latter will determine the selection of the appropriate tool or instrument. Each of these may lend itself to the acquiring of particular data and sometimes several different instruments must be employed to obtain the information required. The researcher must, therefore, be familiar with these tools, the nature of the data they produce, their advantages and disadvantages, and the extent of their reliability, validity, and objectivity. The tools to be discussed include the Questionnaire, the Opinionnaire, the Interview, and Observation. Other instruments, such as sociometric and psychological testing
and inventories, as well as methods of laboratory experimentation, will not be discussed because of their dubious applicability to Masonic research.
When gathering data from a population sample to answer questions of a factual nature, a Questionnaire will represent a suitable instrument. When opinions rather than facts are desired, the proper instrument to be applied is termed an Opinionnaire or Attitude Scale.
Questionnaires may be mailed out to the respondents, or they may be administered in person. The latter approach has the advantage of establishing rapport between the researcher and his subjects, and of clarifying details should that be necessary.
The mailed questionnaire is probably both the most used and most criticized data-gathering device. It has been referred to as the lazy man's way of gaining information, although the careful preparation of a good questionnaire takes a great deal of time, ingenuity, and hard work. There is little doubt that the poorly constructed questionnaires that flood the mails have created a certain amount of contempt . . .
Filling out lengthy questionnaires takes a great deal of time and effort, a favour that few senders have any right to expect of strangers. The unfavourable reaction is intensified when the questionnaire is long, the subject trivial in importance, the items vaguely worded, and the form poorly organized . . .
Unless one is dealing with a group of respondents who have a genuine interest in the problem under investigation, who know the sender, or who have some common bond of loyalty to a sponsoring institution or organization, the rate of return is frequently disappointing . . .
Although the foregoing discussion may seem to discredit the questionnaire as a respectable research technique, the attempt has been to consider the abuse or misuse of the device. Actually, the questionnaire has unique advantages and, properly constructed and administered, it may serve as a most appropriate and useful data-gathering device in a research project. (34)
In the third paragraph of the above quotation, Best probably referred to alumni of a certain college as the recipients of a questionnaire sent to them by a graduate student of their alma mater, and their inclination to respond out of a feeling of loyalty and, perhaps, affection, remembering the days when they were the ones asking favours. This writer can see a very definite application of that quotation to Freemasons as possible respondents to a survey which deals with aspects very near and dear to them.
Questionnaires may be designed in a closed or an open form, or in a combination of both, depending on the nature of the problem and the character of the respondents.
THE CLOSED FORM QUESTIONNAIRE
This type calls for short responses which may be represented by check marks, by yes-or-no replies, or by rank-ordering on some scale. Sometimes, provisions are made to insert short answers in blank spaces, a category "other" may be added, or an instruction such as "kindly specify", to enable the researcher to classify
even unanticipated responses. The following example illustrates the closed form in one of its variations:
Why did you desire to become a Freemason?
Please indicate three reasons in order of importance, using number 1 for most important, 2 for the second most important, and 3 for the third most important:
(a) Example set by a friend
(b) Advice of a friend
(c) Reputation of the Craft
(d) Literature perused
(e) Good fellowship expected
(f) Economic returns expected
(g) Other (please specify)
34 ibid., pp. 161, 162
THE OPEN FORM QUESTIONNAIRE
Rather than forcing the respondents to choose between rigidly limited responses, an open-form questionnaire permits them to answer freely in their own words and their own frame of reference. There are, however, disadvantages to this method which at first view appears superior to the closed form: having no clues to guide their thinking, they may unintentionally omit important information, and if they lack the ability or the time to give considerable thought to the questions, they may not provide useful data. Also, the task of categorizing, tabulating, and summarizing their many different and complex answers may be very difficult and time consuming. Using the same example given above, an open-form item would simply read:
Why did you desire to become a Freemason?
and sufficient space would be provided to accommodate the answer. QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION
Both kinds of questionnaires, in order to yield accurate data, require the asking of precisely worded questions that are apt to elicit unambiguous answers. It must be remembered that often the same words mean different things to different people, a fact that calls for carefully defining and qualifying terms that could easily be misinterpreted. Best points out the following:
Be careful in using descriptive adjectives and adverbs that have no agreed-upon meaning . . . Frequently, occasionally, and rarely do not have the same meanings to different persons. One respondent's occasionally may be another's rarely. Perhaps a stated frequency - times per week, times per month - would make this classification more precise.
The same author offers a concise, eight-point advice under the heading,
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD QUESTIONNAIRE
1. It deals with a significant topic, one the respondent will
recognize as important enough to warrant spending his time on ... 2. It seeks only that information which cannot be obtained from other sources.
3. It is as short as possible, only long enough to get the essential data . . .
4. It is attractive in appearance, neatly arranged, and clearly duplicated or printed.
5. Directions are clear and complete, important terms are defined, each question deals with a single idea, all questions are worded as simply and as clearly as possible.....(providing for) unambiguous responses.
6. The questions are objective, with no leading suggestions as to the responses desired . . .
7. Questions are presented in good psychological order, proceeding from general to more specific responses . . .
8. It is easy to tabulate and interpret. It is advisable to preconstruct a tabulation sheet, anticipating how the data will be tabulated and interpreted, before the final form of question is decided upon. This working backward from a visualization of the final analysis of data is an important step in avoiding ambiguity in the questionnaire form.
35 Ibid., p. 165
36 Ibid., p. 170
All of the above is good advice. In addition it should be stated that it always pays dividends for a researcher first to submit his questionnaire items to his peers for criticism (in the Masonic research lodge probably to a number of the members who are knowledgeable in that particular area of research), and also to administer the instrument to a small group in a trial run, in order to ascertain whether the questionnaire in its original form does indeed elicit the type of responses needed, or whether it requires further refinement. Then the necessary changes can be made before the research instrument is administered to the target population.
When instead of factual information the researcher aims to obtain individuals' personal feelings or attitudes, the opinionnaire is the instrument frequently used. Although oral methods can be employed, the most frequent method uses a type of questionnaire that differs from the previously discussed only in the phrasing of the questions. It is quite likely that an individual, when confronted with a question of some substance, will react by voicing an opinion which he believes conforms to expected values (which may be the case in Masonic research). This kind of response may be given consciously or unconsciously; in either case, that should be anticipated by the researcher who should construct his instrument accordingly. The respondent may not even have given the question any serious thought until confronted with it. That also has to be taken into account. Best offers words of wisdom:
Even behaviour itself is not always a true indication of attitude. When politicians kiss babies, their behaviour may not be a true expression of affection towards infants. Social custom or the desire for social approval make many overt expressions of behaviour mere formalities, quite unrelated to the inward feelings of the individual . . .
With these limitations in mind, psychologists and sociologists have explored an interesting area of research, basing their data upon the expressed opinions of individuals. Several methods have
1. Asking the individual directly how he feels about a subject. This technique may employ a.....questionnaire of the open or closed form. It may employ the interview process, in which the respondent expresses his opinion orally.
2. Asking the individual to check the statements in a list with which he is in agreement.
3. Asking the individual to indicate his degree of agreement or disagreement with a series of statements about a controversial subject.
4. Inferring his attitude from his reaction to projective
devices, through which he may reveal his attitude unconsciously.
(A projective device is a data-gathering instrument which
conceals its purpose in such a way that the subject cannot guess how he should respond to appear in his best light. Thus, his real characteristics are revealed.) (37)
Among the techniques developed to measure opinions elicited by opinionnaires or public opinion polls, are those of L. L. Thurstone (38) and R. Likert. (39) Thurstone constructed an attitude scale by assembling a large number of statements concerning a topic, some mildly favourable, favourable, and strongly
37 Ibid., pp. 173, 174
38 Thurstone, L.L. and E.J. Chave, The Measurement of Attitudes, 1929
39 Edwards, A. and K.C. Kenney, in Journal of Applied Psychology, XXX, 1946.
favourable - others mildly unfavourable, unfavourable, and strongly unfavourable. A hundred or more judges sorted these statements into piles, indicating their own judgments as to the degree to which the statement was favourable or unfavourable. For example, following Thurstone, we may approach the public with a survey which would sort the following statement as extremely favourable to the Masonic order:
"All public servants should belong to a Masonic lodge." Similarly, the following would be sorted as unfavourable; "Masonic lodges should be forbidden by law."
The extremes, as cited here, are easily defined, but it is much more difficult to verbalize (intelligently and with purpose) the various stages in between. When all responses are gathered, the number of times each statement is included in the several piles, is tabulated, assigned a value and a position given it by the judges. Statements that are too broadly scattered in the judges' sorting, are discarded as ambiguous or irrelevant.
Another method, that of R. Likert (1932), eliminates the use of judges. It is as reliable as Thurstone's method, and it is simpler. The respondent gives his answers along a 5-point scale: strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree, strongly disagree. This method arbitrarily gives a weight of 1 to 5 to the alternative answers, and the same numerical values are always given; for example:
"Appoint Freemasons to public office" - strongly agree: 5 "Exclude Freemasons from public office" - strongly disagree: 5
Although the answers differ, they receive the same weight because they both reveal a favourable attitude toward Freemasons. The total score for each subject is the sum of the values assigned to each item that he checked.
If the instrument consisted of 25 items, the scores would be interpreted thus:
Items: Value: Score: Interpretation:
25 x 5 = 125 Most favourable response possible
25 x 4 = 100 Favourable response
25 x 3 = 75 Neutral attitude
25 x 2 = 50 Unfavourable response
25 x 1 = 25 Most unfavourable response possible
As in the case of the questionnaire discussed earlier, it is advisable that a pilot run be conducted to isolate weak items and items that do not sufficiently discriminate between respondents who obtain high and low scores on the attitude scale.
The interpreter should bear in mind that the 5 points on the scale are not necessarily equally spaced, e.g., the interval between "strongly agree" and "agree" may not be of the same magnitude as that between "agree" and "undecided'.' Another word of caution is in order: although the opinionnaire is designed for anonymous responses, some individuals may still give answers according to what they think they should feel, rather than how they really feel. In spite of these limitations, opinion measurement has merit in the area of social research.
Many people are more willing to communicate orally than in writing, therefore, they will provide the required data more readily in the friendly atmosphere of an interview than on a questionnaire. Interviews can also be conducted in the exploratory stage of research, to be followed up by other means.
Some interviews, termed Structured Interviews, are rigidly organized and formal: the same questions are presented in the same manner and order to each subject. Even the same introductory and closing remarks are used. Unstructured Interviews are flexible, and although preplanned questions are
asked, they may be altered to suit the subject and the situation. This approach allows the interviewer to follow up unexpected
clues and to penetrate behind the initial answers. Best states,
After the interviewer gains rapport, or establishes a friendly, secure relationship with the subject, certain types of confidential information may be obtained that an individual might be reluctant to put in writing. The interviewer can explain the purpose of his investigation, and can explain more clearly just what information he wants. If the subject misinterprets the question, the interviewer may follow it with a clarifying question. At the same time, he may evaluate the sincerity and insight of the interviewee . . .
The preparation for the interview is a critical step in the procedure. The interviewer must have a clear conception of just what information he needs. He must clearly outline the best sequence of questions and stimulating comments that will systematically bring out the desired responses. A written outline, schedule or check list will provide a set plan for the interview, precluding the possibility that the interviewer will
fail to get important and needed data . . .
When interviews are not recorded by tape or other electronic device, it will be necessary for the interviewer to take written notes, either during the interview or immediately thereafter . ..
As a data-gathering technique, the interview has unique advantages. In areas where human motivation as revealed in reasons for actions, feeling, and attitudes is concerned, the interview can be most effective.
. . . This technique is time-consuming, however, and one of the most difficult to employ successfully. (40)
The last of the "tools" of descriptive research to be discussed in this paper, is direct observation as a data-gathering technique. It may be used to obtain data on human activities or on material objects. In Masonic terms, the former may entail an objective, comparative study of Brethren in action, or of Lodges in action; the latter could be a study concerned with all the Lodge premises in the jurisdiction: their age and state of repair, materials of construction, number and size of rooms, furniture, facilities, works of art, but also the financial end, utilization by other organizations, and other relevant aspects. Best contributes the following thoughts:
. . . observation as a research technique must always be expert, directed by a specific purpose, systematic, carefully focused, and thoroughly recorded . . .
The observer must know just what to look for. He must be able to distinguish between the significant aspects of the situation and factors that have little or no importance to the investigation. of course, objectivity is essential, and careful and accurate methods of measuring and recording are employed. The use of the check list, score card, or some other type of inquiry may help to objectify and systematize the process . . . (41)
40 Best, op.cit., pp. 186, 187
41 Ibid., p. 182
PART 4 - THE RESEARCH REPORT
This paper is prepared for the sole purpose of being presented to FIAT LUX LODGE OF RESEARCH; therefore, the following discussion concerning the writing of the report will not touch on the customary requirements associated with university theses and dissertations, reports to institutions like the National Research Council, nor on the preparation of articles to be published in scientific journals. Any omissions of do's and don'ts the reader may discern, have been committed for just that reason. What remains is what still applies to a Masonic research paper, and it conforms to the usages of the academic community.
Unless the paper is brief (and few thoroughly researched papers can be brief), it should contain the following: (a) the title and author; (b) an abstract or precis, (c) the body of the report consisting of hypotheses, the evidence and associated features, and the conclusions; (d) a summary restating the conclusions (this is not a duplication of the abstract up front); (e) appendices if applicable; and (f) acknowledgements and the bibliography. At times it may be advisable to place a table of contents ahead of the body of the report; this applies when it is
a lengthy paper and when it is subdivided into distinct sections or chapters.
The abstract contains all of the report in condensed form, for the benefit of the peruser who will gain from it sufficient information on whether or not the paper is of interest or concern to him. The summary at the end, if thought to be valuable, recapitulates the salient points or findings of the study but
does not explain the why and how of the research techniques used. In a sense, the use of an abstract, the body of the report of course, and a summary, complies with one of the recommended practices speakers are advised to use: "First you tell them what you are going to tell them; then you tell them; and afterwards
you tell them what you told them."
The body of the report itself should be properly introduced. It depends upon the subject and its complexity whether this can be done in a sentence or two, or whether the introduction amounts to something like a chapter. In any case, acquainting the reader with what is to follow, is a necessary step in preparing him for properly understanding the author's work. A good introduction stimulates interest and motivates the reader to peruse the document to its end.
The next step, within the body of the report, consists of the presentation of the evidence and its analysis. Because of the wide variety of studies and kinds of data that exist no specific direction can be given for organizing this section of the report. The conclusions announce whether the findings of the study confirmed or rejected the original hypotheses. If the
conclusions are found to modify the existing theory, this fact is discussed. If the investigation raised questions that suggest further research, this is stated.
The summary has been briefly explained above. In addition, one should remember not to treat it as an afterthought and not to contaminate it by allowing previously held convictions, not tested by the research study, to creep in. It should be written so that a person, reading only the summary, may obtain real benefit from it.
THE STYLE OF WRITING
Campbell's style manual, adopted for this publication, and adhered to by this writer, is listed in the bibliography, but the Brother who undertakes to do research for the benefit of FIAT LUX LODGE OF RESEARCH and her publication, Vox Lucis, will do well enough as long as he adheres to good usage,and presents his report in a creative, clear and concise style. The editor will do the rest, but he is happiest when he has little to amend.
The findings of a study are of little value if they are not communicated effectively. Entertaining, amusing, or persuading the reader is not the objective of the researcher, nor does he merely discuss his opinions concerning a problem. His arguments must be based on the factual data he has collected, and he must report whether they confirm or reject his hypothesis. The writer must also anticipate that his report will be read by knowledgeable and discerning readers, experts in the field, who may question the interpretations he placed upon the data and the accuracy of the footnotes. A research report must stand the test of critical scholarship supplied by other investigators.
Since a pompous presentation impedes rather than increases understanding, an able writer puts his report into simple straightforward words and sentences, and defines unfamiliar terms
or uses them in a context from which their meaning can be inferred. Nevertheless,a formal rather than colloquial style is employed, but formal writing need not drain all spontaneity and individuality from the ideas to be conveyed. Also, familiar, concrete nouns arouse clearer mental images than carefully planned profundities.
Of course, the generally accepted rules of correct English usage should prevail. The report is written in the third person; personal pronouns such as I, me, we, you, our, and us - are not
used. Simplified spelling is not acceptable in research reports. Punctuation must conform to good usage and must be consistent. Needless to say the spelling must be correct, whether concerning English words or foreign terms. The editor casts a watchful eye over these matters, and the proofreader watches out for correct syllable division (to avoid the horrible word "syllabification"). The past tense is used when referring to what the present researcher or other investigators before him have done. The present tense is used when referring the reader to material
before him and when mentioning general truths and well-established principles.
A research worker acknowledges his indebtedness to other authors not only as a matter of honesty and courtesy, but also as a means of indicating the quality and thoroughness of his investigation. To some readers, especially other researchers, the footnotes and bibliography are as important as the textual material. Therefore, the writer of a research paper should include all the information that others will need to locate the source materials with a minimum of effort. There are specific style rules in existence, for footnotes as well as bibliography listings. These will be discussed hereunder.
Studding a report indiscriminately with quotations is a sign of shoddy workmanship and of little original effort. However, quotations are of genuine value when presenting ideas in the words of their originators, properly crediting them for their thoughts (an approach used throughout this paper). At times, a writer would paraphrase, rather than quote verbatim, from the work of another author; in that case he will credit the source by a superscript at the end of the passage, while all the time having used his own words rather than those of the original. A footnote will give credit to the author. Quotations as such, however, are word for word reproductions from the source, also followed by a superscript and appropriate documentation in the footnote, but it must be remembered that absolutely no change in the words, even the spelling and the punctuation, use of capital letters or not, and the like, must be made. One does have the liberty, however, to omit irrelevant portions from the paragraph quoted by replacing them with three spaced dots:..... and continuing, or ending the quotation as may be appropriate. Under no circumstances must anything be changed from the original text.
Short direct quotations not over three typewritten lines may be enclosed in quotation marks and run into the text, except where for the sake of emphasis they are made to stand out from the rest of the text. Long direct quotations, of more than three typewritten lines in length, are set off from the rest of the text in a separate indented paragraph or paragraphs, and are single-spaced.
Vox Lucis, the publication of this Research Lodge, has adopted one of the most widely used forms of footnoting, that of providing the explanatory, bibliographical information or a cross-referencing with other parts of the text, on the same page on which the passage referred to appears. This is done by repeating the superscript (consecutively numbered throughout the paper) below a line at the bottom of the page, and then listing the following; the author's name, the title (of the article or journal, or of the book), the year of publication if desired, and the page number on which the quotation may be found. (More specific source data are given in the bibliography, which see.)
To save space, full bibliographical information is given in the footnotes only the first time that a reference is made to a source; thereafter, the commonly accepted abbreviations are used:
Ibid. (from Latin "ibidem" = in the same place) indicates the same page of the same work as in the immediately preceding reference.
Ibid., p. 8 This also refers to the same work, but to a different page. ibid. can be used as many times as necessary, provided that no intervening references to other books occur. If there are intervening footnotes, and the writer recites a work previously footnoted, he uses
op.cit. (from Latin "opere citato" = in the work cited) following the author's name and, therefore, with a lower case o:
Smith, op.cit., p. 234
When reference is made to more than one title (book or article) by the same author, op.cit. cannot be used, but instead the author's name, title, and page reference must be given. When a second but nonconsecutive reference follows, referring to the same work and the same page previously cited, one uses the term
loc.cit. (from Latin "loco citato" = in the place cited), also preceded by the author's name, e.g., Smith, loc.cit.
As articles to be published in Vox Lucis are first presented to the editor and the proofreader, the author need not concern himself too much with all the details of capitalizing and italicizing footnote information; the proofreader will look after that, but he should supply the editor and the proofreader with all essential material required for inclusion in the footnotes. In other words, it is more a matter of content than of style.
As with the footnotes, bibliographical data must be supplied in their essentials. While footnotes cite exact places where cited or paraphrased material can be found, the purpose of the bibliography is quite different. It lists in alphabetical order all the references used by the writer. The alphabetical order refers to the surnames of the (principal) authors, not to the titles of the works used. The bibliography must include all the sources which were consulted (and usually cited somewhere in the text), but no more. It would be poor practice, bordering on the unethical, to build up an impressive bibliography by listing works related to the study but not used at all.
The listing of bibliographical information follows this sequence:
(1) Surname of the author, followed by given name or initials, e.g., Block, Marc,Finley, M. I.,
(2) The title, taken from the title page in full, underlined in the manuscript and to be printed in italics, e.g.:
The Historian's Craft, (manuscript) The Historian's Craft, (as printed), or in the case of an article, the title is placed between quotation marks and the name of the publication is underlined or italicized, e.g.,
"Generalizations in Ancient History" in Generalizations in the Writing of History.
(3) Edition number, if more than one, e.g., 2nd ed.,
(4) Volume number if more than one. In the case of periodicals month, day and year may be required.
(5) Place of publication, followed by colon, e.g., Englewood Cliffs:
(6) Publisher, e.g., Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
(7) Year of publication, e.g., 1970. This year will be found on the title page, or on the second page, and may be the year of the copyright.
An examination of the bibliographies appearing in Vox Lucis, and the following general rules will answer some common questions:
(A) If a book has two or more authors, the second and third authors' names are written in the normal order of given names and surnames, e.g., Aspeslet, A. O., R. J. L. Borland and W. J. Collett, If there are more than three authors, the name of the first is given, followed by et al. (and others), e.g., Aberdeen, R. G. J. et al.,
(B) If a book is published under the name of an editor, this is so indicated by (ed.) in parentheses, e.g., Fox, F. G. (ed.),
(C) When two or more works by the same author or editor are listed, the first entry gives the name in full; subsequent entries need not repeat the name but an unbroken line of about six spaces in length can be used as a substitute. The titles of that author's work are then alphabetized under his name.
(D) When identifying the place of publication, the name of the city is sufficient if it is well known; otherwise the country should be given also.
(E) When quoting from an encyclopedia composed of articles by numerous authors, this should be done as shown in this example: Walzer, Richard R. Arabic Philosophy", Encyclopedia Britannica, 1959, Vol. 2
When the encyclopedia does not list individual contributors, this format applies:
Coil, H. W., "Apron Lecture", Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia, 1961, p. 64.
In the case of well known encyclopedias, other publishing information may be omitted.
(F) Dictionaries are sometimes included in bibliographies when it was found necessary to cite specific definitions. These are
treated in the same way as encyclopedias.
Many more specialized cases can occur, therefore, the writer should - the editor and proofreader must - consult an authoritative source on bibliographical style such as the one by W. G. Campbell listed in the bibliography of this paper.
Alberta, The Grand Lodge of, Ceremony for Investing the officers of a Lodge, Calgary, 1973
----, Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Alberta, Calgary, 1969/1980
Best, John W., Research in Education, 2nd ed., Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1970
Block, Marc, The Historian's Craft, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1953
Campbell, W. G., Form and Style in Thesis writing, 3rd ed., Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Company, 1969
Canada in the Province of Ontario, Grand Lodge of, meeting the Challenge, Hamilton: Masonic Holdings, 1976
Carr, Harry (ed.), Ars Quatuor Coronatorum London: Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076, any recent edition
Coil, Henry Wilson, Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia, New York: Macoy Publishing & Masonic Supply Company, Inc., 1961
Drever, James, A Dictionary of Psychology, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Ltd., 1964
Edwards, Allen L. and Katherine C. Kenney, "A Comparison of the Thurstone and Likert Techniques of Attitude Scale Construction", Journal of Psychology, Vol. XXX, February 1946, pp. 72-83
Finley, M. I., "Generalizations in Ancient History" in L. Gottschalk (ed.), Generalizations in the writing of History, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963
Hillway, Tyrus, Introduction to Research, 2nd ed., Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Company, 1964
Onions, C. T. (ed.), The Oxford International Dictionary, Unabridged, Toronto: Leland Publishing Company Limited, 1958
Thurstone, L. L. and E. J. Chave, The Measurement of Attitudes, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1929
Young, Pauline V., Scientific Social Surveys and Research, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1956