A BRIEF SKETCH OF FREEMASONRY

AND THE SYMBOLS OF THE FIRST DEGREE.

By W.Bro.ERNEST H. SHACKLETON, Templars Lodge 4302.

TRANSACTION No. 53.

“The Initiated must not be informed but they must receive impressions, and they must be put into a certain attitude of mind, provided it be evident that they are prepared for it.”

ARISTOTLE.

“Though Athens brought forth numerous divine things, yet she never carried on anything nobler than those sublime Mysteries through which we have become gentler, and have advanced from a barbarous and rustic life to a civilized one, so that we not only live more joyfully but also die with a better hope.”

CICERO.

“Happy is he among men upon earth who has seen these mysteries; but he who is uninitiated and who has no part in them, never has lot of like good things once he is dead, down in the darkness and gloom.”

From HOMERIC HYMN TO DEMETER.

Brethren-It is with diffidence and humbleness that I read this paper to you-by stringing together as pearls upon a thread or beads upon a rosary, many things, said of our Ancient Fraternity, culled from many sources I hope that this paper may help you to see, perhaps even more deeply than you have hitherto done, the marvelous symbolism of our Ritual-for symbols are means of leaving truths behind-to be found by those qualified to find-Truths which will live for ages in the sands of Time.

It has been well said that we must despair of ever being able to reach the fountain head of streams which have been running and increasing from the beginning of time.

Let a man’s religion or mode of worship be what it may, he is not excluded from our Order, provided he believes in the glorious Architect of Heaven and Earth and practices the sacred duties of morality.

Freemasonry is definitely religious in its faith and in its spirit and purpose, though not a religion or a church, but Lodge Meetings when proficiently conducted are occasions when true worship is possible, forming as it does in its secrets the keys to the problems of life and death.

The late Rt W.Bro. Sir Kynaston Studd said recently: It is the only religion that many men know.”

Freemasonry is an Order which has captured the thought and devotion of multitudes of men. It has come down to us through the ages and binds men of varied types, races and professions in all circles of life by the use of simple symbols to enshrine and promulgate its great truths, which received with sincerity and translated into daily practice are so invaluable in refining and purifying character.

In these symbols lie concealed the real secrets of our Order, constituting as they do a PICTURE LANGUAGE or ART SPEECH, made to carry a complete philosophy of the existence and relation of Deity-Nature-and Man.

Many creeds have arisen, have had their day and have passed completely away but Masonry remains as fresh as ever, built on the rock of truth.

“It is because to-day seeks wisdom from yesterday that it can transmit wisdom to-morrow.”

Masonry is of remote antiquity, so it is, as may reasonably be imagined of boundless extent. We trace its footsteps in the most distant, most remote ages, and nations of the world.

We find it among the first and most celebrated civilizers of the East; we deduce it regularly from the first Astronomers on the plains of Chaldea, to the Wise and Mystic Kings and Priests of Egypt; the Sages of Greece and the philosophers of Rome; even to the rude Gothic Builders of a dark and degenerate age, whose vast Temples still remain amongst us as monuments of their attachment to the Masonic Arts.

All words as spoken are built up from sounds, and in writing these sounds are represented by Symbols called “letters,” in the first ages of the world mutual converse was upheld by a mixed discourse of words and actions (actions being “Signs”) and we can recall the Eastern phrase of the “Voice of the Sign.”

The Wisdom of all the Ancients that is come to our hands is symbolic. The Pigmy races of Western Africa have a sign of a Triangle with a Eye of the “One” in its centre. They have a ceremony where the Initiate has cut on his black six Triangles. In the Ceremony they have perambulations and a solemn promise to keep the secrets of their rite and a sign similar to our E.A. The Aborigines of Australia have the Triangular Sign cut on their Boomerangs. The earliest known race of Mexico have these signs and they talk of the Seven Glorious Ones and the “One,” said to be represented by the eight corners of the Cube-seven make a perfect Lodge and the Initiate.

The Art of Building-the formation of an effectual protection against weather and enemies, is likely to have been the one line of skill first worked out by any Aboriginal people and considered by them the most important-as knowledge increased and early civilization grow-beauty and skilled work held this Art in the foremost place. The first a physical necessity and the second a spiritual aspiration.

Builders were looked upon as magicians and the discovery of the First Sq. was a great step in geometry and all such ideas were regarded as divine revelations, as indeed they were, it is not strange, therefore, that they became emblems of Truth, of justice and uprightness-and so have remained to this day though countless ages have passed.

Ages before our era, even from the remote times of the cliff dweller, the Cross seems to have been a Symbol of Life, the Circle, which ends not nor begins-Eternity-an image of the disc of the Sun. With a point within its Centre it became-as naturally-the emblem of the Eye of the World-that all seeing Eye of the Eternal Watcher of the Human Scene.

In the oldest of the Brahmah beliefs the point is called “Purm” the “Inner Essence,” from which all emanates and around which all revolves.

All stones spoke to man in the sunrise of Time and a Cube was a venerated symbol of Truth-being ever true to itself.

In a great many places in England stones-buried for centuries under the soil, many feet down, have been unearthed with the marking of a Circle with a Centre-they were in the rough shape of a Double Cube, the ground around them-was hardened as by much perambulating round them and they are said to be symbols of a religion whose basis was a system of Astrological theology-these are from the East and on the coming of the Phoenicians there seems to have been an increase in their use. Archeologists estimate that these stones must have been erected on their sites at some time over 500 thousand years ago. They have been found in Northumberland, in Cumberland and in the West Country.

So it is in our Grand Lodge to-day-a large effigy of the Sun in Splendor over the Throne of the G. M.-the disc of the Life-giving Sun symbolizing the Sublime and Incomprehensible Infinite.

PILLARS-more eloquent still-reach up to the Heavens and speak of Strength and Wisdom.

Buildings from the remotest times have been found with Pillars at their entrances-among the very old races of the Mayas and Incas there were three Pillars placed at the entrances to their Temples-signifying Wisdom, Strength and Beauty-built 11,500 years ago.

Amidst the ruins of Copan in Mexico is a Temple with three rooms and a separate entrance to each the - first for Initiations, the second for Passing, and the third for Raisings, built by a race of unknown people, yet these buildings exhibit a knowledge of the sciences unsurpassed even to this day.

Pillars were erected to mark Holy Places-always they were signs of “Stability” of what the Egyptians described as “The Place of Establishing forever.”

Where the Ark rested on Mount Ararat, Noah erected a pillar to commemorate his deliverance, and the wandering tribes after their migration from Sinai built Pillars in imitation of this prototype in every country.

After the deliverance from Egypt, B. erected two Pillars on his estate, one he called by his own name and the other J. after the son of Simeon - one of the twelve tribes of Israel.

Even to this day the erection of Pillars to mark historical events persists, for in 1943 a Pillar was built in Ireland to commemorate for all time the landing of the first American troops on that shore.

It is to be noted that in the remotest ages the races - wherever they were placed on the earth - all believed that the earth was a great flat Sq - that the Heavens were a huge arc reaching to the edges of the Sq. and that the earth was supported on Great Columns.

The purpose of evolution is to raise every human being to the sublime degree of a Master.

Modern investigation of the world-religion shows us that these beliefs were world-wide, and held by all the nations of antiquity before the Jewish nation was built or Abraham had left the valley of the Euphrates.

Down the centuries we find enrolled the names of philosophic teachers who veiled their doctrines in figures similar to those in use to-day and only by the study of Eastern Mysticism and rituals can our symbolism be understood.

From the remotest times Initiates have gone forth from a world Fraternity or Brotherhood as Ambassadors of an invisible world Government-of inspired teachers -the ancient ones of the earth-ancient even in King Solomon’s day-and they are still amongst us-and Great Adepts of an Holy Empire beyond our comprehension.

During the wars of the Crusades the Crusaders were initiated-through the Coptic Priests in Egypt (these Coptic Priests were the early native Christians from Coptos (in lower Egypt the Copts are the “Scribes”) into the Mysteries of the “Children of the Widow” and the Cult of the G.A.O.T.U. which represented in the Mysteries of the “Eternal.”

Mysteries of India were celebrated in Temples carved out of solid rock-the Temple of Elephanta is perhaps the most ancient in the world, 135 feet sq., 18 feet high. The first investiture of a C. is with the Zennar-or sacred cord-of three threads-our C.T. of to-day. He was placed in the Centre of the Assembly-on the E. was Brahma, on the W. Vishnu, and on the S. Shiva.

Oath administered, he was sprinkled with water-divested of his shoes, then made to circumambulate the Temple three times-saying as he approached the E.-“I copy the example of the Sun and follow his benevolent course.” He took three Ss at Right Angles. The Tau was marked on his forehead. He was entrusted with the Word.

These ancient mysteries were the sources of moral life-the foundations of Theology, Philosophy, Ethics and Science-in a word, the mother of civilization-cherished by the enlightened-illustrated in their mystic circle, growing and expanding, and gaining influence and at length blending with the life of the people, elevating the notion of man’s relations with his fellow man. The rites of Initiation were sacred dramas, extremely fascinating and intended to shadow forth the profoundest mysteries of the Universe, of God, the Soul, and human destiny and the progress of man toward the supreme perfection, whether in time or Eternity.

I rather tend to think that the lessons of all these most ancient Mysteries teach that this Life is a definite part of that Immortal Life to which he, the Candidate, hopes to attain by attention to the principles taught him by the Masters and that by becoming one of the accepted he is on that path which will ultimately lead him to that end.

So it is that the Sq., Triangle, the L. and the Rule, the Cross and Circle are the oldest symbols of humanity - each pointing beyond itself - symbols always do - showing us hints of the highest faith and philosophy and of the unity of the human mind. These symbols are called “Constant Symbols” proper to all races, all societies and to all countries.

Ruskin argues that the Laws of Architecture are Moral Laws - as applicable to building of character as to construction of Cathedrals. He finds those laws to be Sacrifice, Truth, Power, Beauty, Life, Memory and as the crowning grace of all, that principle to which polity owes its stability, life its happiness, Faith its acceptance and creation its continuance - OBEDIENCE. He holds there is no such thing as Liberty and never can be - the stars have it not - the earth has it not - the sea has it not - architecture and Life are governed by inflexible Laws.

So, Brethren, we find our Great Fraternity spread over the four corners of the globe - searching for Moral Truth - illustrating its lessons by dramatic ceremonial, allegory and symbols. Its members communicate by signs and tokens which are passports to attention of the initiated in all parts of the world.

Our knowledge began in the E. and spread to the W. In the oldest Chinese Classics - The Book of History 20th Century before Christ - we find these words: “Ye Officers of the Government apply the Compasses,” and in the Book of Changes are many of our symbols handed down from an earlier people known as the Pandus, these symbols were associated with Architecture - the Great Lodge of Adepts was followed by the Vedas. The Primitive Indian Manu used characters of geometrical symbols.

Geometrical Symbols have been used for many centuries before Pythagoras and his times by the oldest of the mystics and was almost a complete sign language which was used to convey the great truths which are eternal. The Speculative symbols - or Mystic symbols are of the most important and do light the path of real understanding for those who are able to interpret them aright.

In Tibet has been discovered a system of Operative and Speculative Masonry - of which the Kings were the G.M.s. The Monarch Ruler’s emblem was a Hammer - which had to be returned on his death. The Deity was designated as the “First Builder” and the Magistrates as “Level Men.”

In Crete have been unearthed very ancient Minoan Temples devoted to the Creton Mysteries. Three Columns figure in their construction and in the Temple there are three thrones, situated in the E., S. and W. Clay figures have been found and by their attitudes they can be recognized as making our signs, their bowls have engrave on them the Sq. and Triangle and are about 4,000 years old.

In a work called the “Great Learning,” five Centuries B.C., we find the words: “A man be adjured to do not to others what he would not them do to him and to act on the Sq.”

In the writings of Mencius it is taught that “Men should apply the Sq. and Comps. morally to their lives and the Level and Marking Line besides, if they would walk in the straight and even paths of wisdom and keep themselves within the bounds of honour and virtue.”

Also a M.M. in teaching Apprentices, makes use of Sq. and Comps.

Behind Modern Masonry and all that has developed therefrom, lie the ancient mysteries - they date from about 1400 B.C. and include:- The Orphic, Bacchic, Dionysian, Ellusinian, Samothracian, Cabiric, and Mithraic

They had three Degrees-

1st. Lustration or purification.

2nd. Initiation.

3rd. Perfection.

In the Ellusinian rites the C. at Initiation was called a “Child of the Moon” and was told that a new life followed, this, his second Birth.

It would take too long to go fully into these Degrees as each has a history. A period of seven years in each case, had to elapse between Initiation and Perfection during which time a C. had to study to render himself a fit and proper person for the higher Degree.

The Dionysian Artificers do, I believe, form a strong link with the Mediaeval Masons.

The earliest historic records of the E. give evidence of a faith expressed in allegoric form and illustrated by the symbols of Building Tools. Secrets were orally transmitted, the leaders only had full knowledge, they gathered in a Temple in the desert, the Officers being distinguished by symbolic jewels and they wore leather aprons.

Mecca has had for many generations a Masonic Society derived from the Koreish - called Guardians of the Kaaba - the Koran has many old legends on which the Society was founded. The words of the rituals were communicated orally and have been passed down from one to the other in an unbroken chain from time immemorial. In Mecca is the Temple of the Black Cube. The Priests in charge of this Temple have a ritual of Initiation and their ceremony has much that is similar to ours and they receive many thousands of pilgrims who come from all parts of the world to gaze at this huge Black Polished perfect Cube - a symbol of the “ONE” - absolute Truth - as they have it.

Dr. Newton in his book the “Builders,” says that when Cleopatra’s Needle was taken down for removal all the emblems of the Builders were found in the foundation. The rough cube, the polished cube in pure white lime-stone, the Sq. cut in Syenite, an iron trowel, a lead plummet, the Arc of a circle, the Serpent symbol of Wisdom and a Stone Trestle Board, a stone bearing the Masters Mark and a heiroglyphic word meaning “Temple.” All so placed and preserved as to show they had a high symbolic meaning.

It is of interest to note that our Pillar on the Embankment is one of two Pillars which stood as the entrance to PIT-UM-the City of the Setting Sun - one was given to us in 1878 and the other to the U.S.A. in 1880 and is erected at the Central Park, New York. They are about 4,000 years old.

In Africa there still exist the Kaverondo Blacksmiths, whom it is said, possess the old Secrets - one of their Kings was named - the 1st Artificer in M.

In the Book of the Dead - a book of great antiquity are records of Building Symbolism - of the Ritual of Birth - of Life and of Death and the further Heaven to be ultimately reached after a perfect life and good conduct proved by many trials and tests.

The signs are to be seen engrave on many buildings 6,000 years old found at Thebes, Luxor, Abu Simbal and Carnac. In the dark recesses of the Great Pyramid are to be seen our signs - the Sphinx holds in its colossal paws a lovely small Temple, which has Masons marks indented on the solid walls, roof and monolithic columns. There was discovered three pedestals about a double cube in size placed in the E., S. and W., and it is recorded that on the top of the one in the E. is engraved a Circle, on that in the S. a Triangle and on that in the W. a Sq. What rites or ceremonies were worked here no one can know but it is certainly significant that these particular symbols are so placed. There is nothing in the N.

The Druces of Mount Lebanon, who supplied the timber have to this day a secret system of their own with signs familiar to us.

The Essenes appeared in Asia in the time of the Persian Empire. Their Order was founded upon an Initiation where the C. had to be penniless and after one year of preparation he was initiated and invested with an Apron. This Degree was founded on three principles - firstly “Love of God,” secondly - “Merciful Justice to all Men,” and thirdly “Purity of Character.” One line of their ritual says “O Brother, Sq. Thyself for use, a stone that may fit in the wall is not left in the ways.”

So the great gathering of Masons came to inhabit the Lebanon District and to build the Great Temple of King Solomon. They did their work well and truly as we know.

The Old Charges state that 80,000 Masons were engaged in the work.

After the Building of the Temple the Masons traveled towards the West and some authorities call them “Sons of Solomon,” they used the interlaced Triangle seal as their emblem, crossing Asia Minor they entered Europe by way of Constantinople and thence through Greece to Rome. Here we find them bound together in Corporations called Collegia. Their influence on the history of this part of the world was far reaching. Throughout these lands beautiful buildings grew and ‘tis said their Lodges flourished.

They followed the Roman armies to remote places building Cities, Bridges and Temples. On the death of any member of their Order his tomb was marked with a Sq. Comps. and L. These small Tombstones are found in many places, even in the heights of the Alps, the Northern snows of the Siberian Desert, and on the North coast of Scandinavia.

The Comacine Masters, founded on the ruins of the Roman College of Architects, were a little known group of Architects who worked on the Island of Comacina, on Lake Como and who seem to have held rigidly to the old rules and science, they spread to the West - they were Masons who, because they were builders of a privileged class, were absolved from Taxes and Servitude, free to travel about in times of feudal bondage. That is to say-they were “Free-Builders.” Free to fix their own prices, not bound by the many Statutes of Wages and not tied to any Feudal Lord. One of their symbols was the Endless “Cord of Eternity.” In Scotland is to be found this Endless Cord which formed part of the stone work of the Roof of Melrose Abbey which rather points to the fact that some centuries ago some of these Masters came to Melrose and worked in the building of the Abbey.

They built their Lodges in Northern Italy and over the door of each is found engraven in the Stone the Compasses.

They were Masters - not mere workmen - but working Architects capable of planning and executing the most difficult and ornate portions of work. Throughout the Middle Ages they wandered over Europe building Castles, Monastries, Palaces and Cathedrals. Holding permanent Lodges at their quarries and forming temporary Lodges at the site of the building.

Let us imagine the Company, Brethren, a band of builders bound together by solemn vows and mutual interests, journeying over rough roads, through alien peoples, to a site selected for, say, a Cathedral. Well armed to protect themselves and their tools. The Company consisting of a Master Mason, Fellows of the Craft, Apprentices and Labourers, and Setters who were not Masons. One man in every ten was named a Warden and was responsible for the other nine.

To build a Cathedral took a long time and we find that sometimes they made a special contract with the inhabitants of a Town that each Mason should be provided with a pair of gloves and a white leather apron and that a Lodge, properly tyled, should be erected at the expense of the Town. So they had a place of Labour, of Study and of Devotion. The Lodge was guarded by a Tyler and only Masons were allowed in. The M. Ms. studying the plans, marking the Tracing Boards and giving instructions to the Brethren. The little community living in rude huts around the walls of the growing Cathedral. Most, if not all, of our symbols were used by them. Their only remains are their wonderful buildings in stone. There are records of a Lodge built at Westminster Abbey for the Masons in 1364. Another, called the New Lodge in 1413, and later both were repaired. From the Fabric Rolls of York Minster of 1355 - in speaking of the Masons’ Lodge there built - is the direction:- “ . . . then one of the Maistres shall knock at the Door in a peculiar manner and they shall all return to work.” Even to-day in Scotland the foreman has a peculiar knock on the door of the Shed with a Straight Edge to summon the men back to work after mid-day break.

Masons were sent for from England in A.D. 298 which really marks the beginning of English Masonry for with the conquest of Britain by the Romans, the Masons of their Building College came with them and it is said the Britons attained great skill as builders under their direction so that when the cities of Gaul were destroyed Chlorus sent here for Architects to build and repair them.

After the Romans left, the College was probably suppressed - for in A.D. 598 we find Bishop Wilfred of York sending to France and Italy to induce Masons to return and build in stone, as he put it “in the Roman manner.”

In 604 there were further applications.

In the Old Charges, the earliest written account of Masonry in England is recorded that King Athelstan caused “a general assembly of all Masons in the realme at York, and there made many Masons, and gave them a deep charge for observation of such articles as belong to Masonry, and delivered them a Charter to keep, and when his assembly was gathered together he caused a cry to be made, that if any Mason of them had a writing that did concern Masonry, or could inform the King in anything or matter that wanting in the said Science already delivered, that they or he should deliver them to the King or write them to him, and there were some in French, some in Greeke, some in English, and other languages whereupon the King caused a Book to be made, which declared how the Science was first invented, and the utility thereof, which Book he commanded to be read and plainly declared when a man was to be made a Mason, that he might fully understand what Articles, Rules and Orders, he was obliged to observe.”

It is from this ancient Manuscript dated 940 A.D. that we find for the first time in writing the words T.G.A.O.T.U. 1,000 years ago.

In the year 1830 the Architect (Bro. Payne) in rebuilding a Bridge near Limerick in Ireland found under the foundations an old Brass Sq., much corroded, containing on its surfaces the inscription “I will strive to live with love and care upon the Level by the Sq.” with the date 1517. The Brethren of a N.E. Yorkshire Lodge have this curious relic.

It was the Order of Masons who made it possible for men “to sing their souls in stone” leaving for the admiration of after times what has been called “the frozen music” of the Middle Ages, monuments of faith and gratitude.

There is a report of a happening in Holland which is interesting. In the year 1735 the Government passed a Statute abolishing Freemasonry - An Amsterdam Lodge defied the Order, and continued to meet secretly. They were discovered and arrested in their Lodge. Acknowledging that they were Masons they swore that their Society taught nothing repugnant to the laws of God or man, they submitted a proposition that the Court before which they were brought should select some man in whom it had implicit confidence, for Initiation, and they would abide by his judgment. This was done, the Town Clerk became a Mason and so strongly approved the teachings of our Fraternity that the Magistrate applied for admission and was accepted. Afterwards the Statute was repealed.

Masonry was at its full tide and in its full splendour, Strength, Beauty and Wisdom its ideals, the Triangle and the Circle forming the keystone of the ornamental tracery of every Temple. It became too powerful, and in 1356 a Statute was enacted prohibiting their assemblies under severe penalties - but it seems that our ancient Brethren carried on secretly - and in 1485 Masonry revived and at a later date did splendid work in the rebuilding of London after the Great Fire in 1666.

It sometimes happened that when the Masons were engaged upon the building of a Castle or a Palace, the Lord or Prince desired to see and consider the plans of the Master Mason. This was difficult as the plans were locked and guarded in the Lodge but with the approval of the Brethren on some occasions the Lord or Prince - or as we should call him to-day - the Building Owner - was initiated and given the signs and passwords to allow him to be admitted to the Lodge to discuss the plans and drawings, so there started among the large number of Operative Masons, a few who knew the secrets, but were not Masons or builders.

The Masons were careful to take every precaution to prevent their secrets becoming known to outsiders, if anyone was caught listening, he was punished by being held under the eaves of the Lodge in rainy weather, while the rain went in at his shoulders and out at his feet, from his punishment of the Old Masons, listeners have long been called “Eaves-droppers.”

Edward Ill revived the Constitution in 1300.

Henry VI in 1690.

Elias Ashmole, who was a Solicitor, was initiated in 1646 at Warrington.

In Westminster Abbey, in the East Aisle of the South Transept, there is a slab of pavement inscribed with the name of “Sir Robert Morey,” Chemist, Mathematician and Rosicrucian, Initiated at Newcastle on 20th May, 1641. He is the first Bro. of whose Initiation in England a definite minute remains. Sir Robert seems to have been Quarter Master General of the Scottish Army and was made a Mason by members of the Lodge of Edinburgh as recorded in their Minute Book. They apparently held a traveling Warrant and made Masons wherever they stopped and held a Meeting.

In 1874 at the excavation of the ruins of Pompeii was found a Masonic Table of square shape engraved with the Masonic Symbols - it had remained buried for 1,800 years. Also was discovered a Tracing Board made of Marble and Inlaid. On a ground of Grey Stone is a human skull, inlaid in grey, black and white, above it is a plumb line in coloured wood, the points being made of brass. From the Top is suspended a plumb line-beneath the skull is a six-spoked wheel, on the rim of which is a moth with red wings edged with yellow, while its eyes are blue. On the left there is an upright spear from which hangs a scarlet and purple robe. The spear is surrounded by a white braid of black and white squares. On the right is a thorn stick from which hangs a coarse piece of cloth in grey brown and yellow tied with cord and over it a leather knapsack. Here we have the Sq. and the plumb-line, the skull, emblem of Mortality, the Butterfly - Moth - symbol of the Greeks to designate the Soul - the wheel emblem of the circle of life - the spokes are placed to represent the six points of intersection and form the triangles - the Hub - the Point in the Centre - the right side - the rugged Staff, the robe and wallet of the Wanderer, denote the passing transitory life of the world - the left - the spear, purple robe and golden cord of the conqueror - the reward of an upright and honourable life well spent. The Skull has one ear placed on the side nearest the pilgrim’s Staff and is interpreted as “Listening to the wants of a distressed Brother.” The whole a symbol of Life - Death and Immortality. Probably the oldest Tracing Board in the world to-day.

Much has been done to bring to light more Masonic allegory and symbolism evidenced in the oldest Temples and buildings of bygone ages and civilizations and it has been found that men far removed from each other - having no possibility of contact - with each other - have trodden the same paths and arrived at the same conclusions - taught by teachers in much the same manner - inspired as it were by some unseen force.

In the year 1600 the rise of Speculative Masons came about - the faithful to the ideals of the Order turning more and more to the moral and spiritual teaching, and in the year 1717 Grand Lodge of England, the Mother Grand Lodge of the world, was formed.

From the Primitive Rites, Customs and Beliefs of the most ancient races of the world, from peoples who used these same signs and symbols, and honoured them as Holy things, it may be that the claim of Masonry to be the oldest system in the world is not far wrong.

In these ever-recurring effigies the past and present touch each other, the ancient and modern beat together in one great unison of sympathy and we see a vast chain of union starting from the shadowy gloom of the antique world and pursuing its winding course till grasped in the living hand of to-day. The history of this chain is the history of Freemasonry. From TIME IMMEMORIAL

We are therefore primarily Masons because our Creator is Himself the Great Master Mason and we as “Creatures of the Creator” inherit our Master’s qualities. Moreover, the history of the human race demonstrates that when man has laboriously built up his civilisation and social system, put up his houses and Temples and finally exhausted his capacity for material Masonry, he at last turns to Speculative or Spiritual Masonry and the contemplation of Building that House not made with hands, eternal in the Heavens, of which he is one of the “Living Stones.”

Thus it is that the constant observance of the ritual never permits the great teaching to be forgotten, and the faithful reiteration of the teaching maintains the spirit of life in every act and phrase of the ritual. Words may enlighten the understanding but acts, ceremonies and images address the profoundest sentiments to the heart - not a man lives but feels at times that language, in its happiest combinations is all too weak to express those burning thoughts which often stir the deepest emotions - hence Masonry with a ritual imposing, sublime and beautiful so efficiently imparts the Truth to a Brother’s Centre.

All kinds and conditions of men have been initiated into Freemasonry, what has attracted them? - not association, not curiosity, but a desire to partake of a deep deposit of simple wisdom, preserved by tradition, proved by the emblems that remain to us cut in imperishable stone, which, across the piled-up dust of ages, whisper the old familiar truths and bear witness to the unity of the human mind and to the existence of a common system of Truth veiled in allegory and taught by symbols.

 

SOME OF THE SYMBOLS OF THE FIRST DEGREE.

TRANSACTION No. 54.

Symbols being outward signs of an inward and spiritual concept representing to us the world of reality and forming a link with the unseen world, presenting truth in concrete form, awakening in us a more developed state of consciousness, made by creative thought - ritual symbolism - the whole idea of the Lodge is a symbol - its plan - its proportions - its furniture - the Officers - their vestments - when it is working the whole action symbolic, and within the Ritual are verbal, pictorial and action symbols.

Verbal:--The allegories and legendary history, the words, the catechisms and charges.

Pictorial:-Jewels, Mark glyphs, symbolical figures and Tracing Boards, Geometrical figures and Pavement.

Enated Symbols:-Initiation, Passings and Raisings. Processions and Signs.

It has been well said “Let there be no mechanical performance of duties. Work with precision in words and actions and breathe into the Ceremony a living spirit intensifying the meaning with a clarity of Vision so that almost consciously each Officer is re-experiencing himself all the trials through which his Candidate is now passing - so that the C. is made to feel that it is a great privilege to take part in the Ceremony.”

So I am going to ask each one of you to recall with me for a moment the experiences you passed through on your first entrance into a Lodge and see how symbols play so important a part in the Ceremony of I.

Thomas Carlyle said, and truly said in Sartor Resartus that:-

“By symbols is man guided and commanded, made happy, made wretched. He everywhere finds himself encompassed with symbols recognized as such or not recognized; the Universe is but one vast symbol of God, nay, if thou wilt have it, what is man but a symbol of God; is not all that he does symbolical; a revelation of sense of the Mystic God given force that is in him, a Gospel of Freedom, which he, the Messiah of nature, preaches, as he can by word and act. Not a hut he builds but is the visible embodiment of a thought, but bears record of invisible things, but is, in the transcendental sense symbolic as well as real. What a man believes, lays to heart, and acts upon, concerning this mysterious universe and his duty and destiny in it, that, determines all the rest and is his religion.”

Our C. is about to forge a link with the “INFINITE” and join in the ideals of the Brotherhood of human dignity and freedom - with one limit to liberty - that is the liberty of the other man - and the happiness of all.

In the Ancient Mysteries he is called “lnitia” because he is beginning a life of reason and virtue and is about to receive a superior Degree of Happiness here below. Thus the moment is come when a man realizes the futility of his illusion of separateness and is about to offer the powers he has developed on the altar of service to his fellow-men - in the secrecy of his heart - he is prepared.

I wonder how many of you can tell me the words that lead to the 1st D. It is a question that some Irish Lodges use as a test of merit of a M.M. The words are said to be “B. t.. h... o. G..” and in some Districts “ G... R........”

Brethren - the Ceremony of Initiation is really divided into two parts - the First - State of D.

1. Admission to the Lodge.

2. The Prayer of Dedication.

3. The Mystical Journeying or Perambulation.

4. The Declaration of Freedom, Motive and Perseverance.

5. The Advance from W. to E.

6. The Ob.

7. The Restoration to L.

These seven episodes forming the Old Rite of Illumination.

Seven episodes with a large range of ideas all within a short half of the Ceremony, each one calling for reflection. In the oldest days “The Hall of Ignorance” or The Hall of Truth in D.......... s.”

The Ceremony is a series of Three, of Trinities, Three Ks., Steps, Lights, Greater and Lesser, Columns, Parts of Time, Tools, Secrets, Staves, Rungs, Principle Officers, Assistant Officers, Dangers, 3 sides of the Strongest Structural form - a Triangle of Force in each case.

The C. comes to our Lodge and outside the Door he meets the T., the Mason who by his presence covers the sacred precincts from all intrusion - there he is prepared - in the classical sense the word “C” means “One clothed in a white garment.”

While this is being done the W. M. opens our Lodge with the assistance of the Officers and Brethren - the unified wills of all acting the opening in due form.

The principal object of Freemasonry is the collection and distribution of Spiritual Force for others - and we in Lodge secure that idea of ascending to higher levels by progressively “Opening Up” from one Degree to another and exposing in each a T.... B .... d.

After the Outer G. has confirmed that all is secure it is the I.P.M. who finally seals the Opening by the placing of the S. and C.

The W.M. represents the Rising Sun, and intellectual or spiritual power and knowledge which come from the E. He calls the L. into being from nothing - sits in the E.- but he does not close it. In the 1st D. he represents: Knowledge and Wisdom - Spirit.

The S.W. represents the Setting Sun. His caste mark is a Horizontal Line. In this D. Clear Conscience and Beauty - Man’s Survival after death.

The J.W. represents the Sun at the Meridian - the Sunny side - Strength through life - the balance between Birth and Death -, Caste Mark - a Perpendicular Line. Body and Mind.

The cooperation of these three Officers in all Ds. being noted - must act together - if any form of progress is to take place.

The S.D. and the J.D. being messengers and conductors form the contact between Body (E.A.) with the Spirit.

S.D. link between E. and W.

J.D. link between W. and S.

The I.G. (under the immediate control of the J.W.) connects with the Outer Guard (The World of the Spirit) the Lodge with the Outer and material world.

The going to and from implied in the words “Carry all messages” is a relic of the former division of the Lodge into the Three Temples. It is probable that the JD. acted as I.G. to the FC Lodge presided over by the S.W., and the S.D. in a similar capacity to the M.M.’s Lodge in charge of the W.M. Thus the S.D. had “to bear all messages and commands from the W.M. to the S.W.” who was in the chair of a F.C. Lodge, and if the message had to be transmitted to the J.W. in the E.A. Lodge it was the duty of the J.D. to take it on “from the S.W. to the J.W. and to see the same punctually obeyed.” The J.D. would then return to the F.C. Lodge with his report that the W.M.’s Orders had been carried out and the S.D. having had “to await the return of the J.D.” takes the message back to the W.M.

So you have built up a Two-Dimensional world -

The Inner (peopled by the Brethren)

W.M. Spirit

S.W. Soul MAN

J.W. Mind & Body

Man being his own Perfect Lodge.

The S.D. link between Spirit and Soul.

J.D. link between Soul and Mind.

I.G. The Inner world contacting the Outer.

O.G. the Outer (busy world outside).

These seven Officers - with a C. form the Perfect Cube.

Seven - you remember the seven glorious ones and the ONE. Seven equals three plus four The Triangle or Trinity added to the Sq. of Earth. the E.A.

Man, consisting, as he does of material, psychical and spiritual nature, it is in Freemasonry that the Spiritual Strength in him is developed and the betterment of the world is possible through his individual effort.

He comes well and worthily recommended. He is brought forward as a C. having sponsors for him, because Masonry has an object in view respecting his personality, something that can be accomplished in him as a result of his fellowship in the Brotherhood.

All enveloping d........ is his state to make him realize that he is coming out from his old condition and entering into another and new order, in which a different quality of I.... is communicated - another life entered - entailing a larger self knowledge and a deepened understanding “So that his eyes shall not perceive before his mind can conceive.” A state of Birth.

Over the entrances to the old Temples were the words Know Thyself.”

HUMILITY

Various parts of his body were made b... to indicate the mental stripping that is necessary. His L. K. is made b. as being the pont on which he will k... in the form of a Sq. and is a token of Humility.

FIDELITY

The R. A. was b... to show that he had neither offensive or defensive weapons about him and this is the h... and a a..which he will lay on the V. of the S.L. and it is this a.. that he will use to extend in the first S. This Right H.... symbolizes Fidelity.

PURITY

He is divested of all M. and M.Ss. - denoting a poor and penniless state of “Birth” and also because we read in the 22nd Ch. of Exodus that when God directed Moses to build an Altar, God said, “If thou suffer a metal tool to pass thereon thou has polluted it,” and King Solomon considered this a Divine law and forbade the sound of any metallic tools at the construction of the Holy T. There are many directions in the V.O.T.S.L. prohibiting the use of metal in any act of a sacrificial nature - where only flint knives are permitted and the custom of using flint axes is still followed by primitive races to-day in killing animals although the use of metal tools is well known to them.

SINCERITY

His L.B...... is b... as a living symbol that his heart shall ever be the sacred repository of our secrets and a token of Sincerity - it is touched with a P.... on entering to prove to the I.G. that the C. is a man (according to the Scottish Ritual) and to remind him of the nearness of death. (The first link with the coming event.)

CONSTANCY

His R.H. was s..... s..... symbolically to remind us of the duty of constancy and fidelity in his engagement, for by a very ancient formality of the East to confirm any agreement a man drew off his shoe and gave it to his neighbor and this was a testimony in Israel. Deuteronomy Ch. 25 v. 5-10.

The shoe as a Masonic symbol reminds a C. that his solemn compact cannot be resiled from, but must be faithfully implemented, it is further to remind him that the ground upon which he now stands is Holy Ground. Exodus Ch.Ill. v. V.

This is called the “Rite of Discalceation” - that is giving testimony of sincerity of intention. In Scotland in the 1st D. the V.O.T.S.L. is open at Ruth IV v. 7-8, and when the Candidate is standing in the N.E. Corner, he is asked to take off his shoe and hand it to the W.M. - verses 7 and 8 are then read to him, and the Brethren are called to witness that he has entered Freemasonry and is ratifying the bargain with the Lodge - his shoe is then returned to him.

AFFECTION

There is a C... T.. to typify that the C. ha on his own responsibility come so far and that now there is no turning back, neither can he be impetuous else the P. will be held firmly. The C.T. is the Masonic symbol of the Bond of Affection which unites the Brethren.

A C.T. encloses the T.B. of the E.A. Degree at the four corners of which are four knots or tassels symbolic of the four Cardinal Virtues, Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence and justice. Here in this complete preparation you find Humility, Fidelity, Sincerity, Constancy and Affection being the necessary qualifications of an E.A. In the old days it was the duty of the Stewards to go out and not only prepare a C. but to explain to him these meanings as they proceeded with that part of the Ceremony.

It is of interest to hear that in the Dutch Lodge in South Africa a C. enters a chamber of Preparation, signs his Declaration and is left for a considerable time, to rest his mind.

Then he is led to another chamber of Meditation where he sits in a Chair and before him is a dimly lighted transparency “Man know Thyself.”

Then on to a Third Chamber, of Silence. He acknowledges the Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of Man. Is taught that silence is symbolical of the great Secrecy which every F. must observe as regards what he sees and hears within the T.

His attention is drawn to the figure of an OWL, emblematic of watchfulness.

He is handed Bread dipped in salt to eat, and water to drink. He then enters the Lodge for the Ceremony.

The Ks. are given and he stands ready to enter the unknown - the vibrations are answered - the barrier is removed and he stands before the Lodge.

In an old phraseology the three Ks. of the C. (the T. should hold the C.’s hand in such a position that it is he the C., who ks. for himself) were said to be:-

The three Masonic Messages to all Humanity.

Seek-and ye shall find.

Ask-and ye shall have.

Knock-and it shall be opened unto you.

Luke XI, v. 9-13.

In an old ritual the C. is asked how he applies this test. He should answer: “I sought in my mind, I asked a friend; I knocked and the door was opened unto me by a Brother.”

The I.G. admits on the P. in due form and holds the P. in the air for all to see.

He confirms that he is Free, and the Blessing is invoked and the Prayer of Dedication is spoken.

The Ks. of the 1st D. have a moral significance - indicating that the C. has three planes in front of him to conquer - the physical body with its impulses coming from the past, the Astral with its strong desires and emotions, and the Mental with its curiosity and waywardness. The fact that, he is well recommended is proof that he has conquered the physical body - though he has still to develop it - he will commence the special work of this D. which is to gain control of his Astral nature.

He is told he is of “Good Report,” he has been found to ring true, in the old Egyptian rituals the Initiate must be “True of Voice.” This is described as the Masonic Key - not made with mortal hands, he will meet it again in the last of his lessons. In the olden days a C. was asked of what is this key composed, and he answered “Of no metal W.M., it is the tongue of G.R.”

He places his trust in G. He takes his first S... called “The Preparatory S...” off with the L.F. It is particularly appropriate at the commencement of a solemn ceremony for it means “Trample all evil beneath you.” In the Hindu mythology Krishna is said to have so stepped on the serpent of evil and crushed it with his L.F. and throughout their rituals all good acions - all progress must be commenced with this S.

He now commemes on the “Rite of Circumambulation” part of a very old ceremony carrying on the mystic sodalities of the ancient civilisations - in the course of the Sun - if you would do reverence you must turn towards your right hand. In the old days the Rite of Circumambulation was rather different to ours - a clear space is left round the outside of the Lodge - this space being the outer path and he was conducted to each gate and after reception he was allowed on to the inner floor of the Lodge and passed round the inner path to show that he is properly prepared - thus was emphasised the gates of entry guarded by the S. and J. Ws. and that only when he has passed these points was he admitted to the presence of the W.M. He will trace this course again and again throughout his Masonic career - following the Ritual of the neophytes of the Druids on Stonehenge or the Prophets of Baal on Mount Carmel.

In Primitive Times this was known as the Rite of the Mystic Journey. Described thus:- “ The C. begins to approach the E. by way of the N. the place of Darkness and Fear - on to the opposite - the S. the place of the Sun - of High Twelve - the scene of the labours, thence to the W. being the place of Closing - standing for Rest - the place for finishing and for presentations. The E. being the Glorious Centre - with the Star - lighting the E., the Great Dawn of Joy.” In some of these old Initiations they speak of 27 circumambulations, each round of which contained on its path a “Test” for the Initiate.

The J.D. takes him round the Lodge and he ks. at the W’s. gate and he is found “F. and of G.R.” and receives the GRIP of FELLOWSHIP - which should be strong and reassuring - it is the first actual physical contact with the Lodge - via the J.W. - The S.W. presents him to the W.M.

He makes his Solemn Declarations.

The J.D. instructs him in the Ad..... - the Ss. of EVOLUTION, each of which carry him forward further than the previous one - something has been gained and nothing has been lost - symbolically his WILL to go on has increased - his Trust is so well placed.

In the old rituals the Ss. are said to be 9, 12 and 15 inches - so a yard away from the K. S........ I Bro. J.D.

His R. H. is on the V.O.T.S.L. while his L. is employed in supporting................... in the form of a Sq. (which is the correct position of the points) that the love of virtue may be centred in his heart.

He is obligated beneath the Crossed Wds. of the S. and J.D.s representing thereby the Triangular Door of the Ancient Egyptian Lodge, and the second of the symbolical Portals through which he has to pass (the first was at the Prayer and the third is the Portal through which he will pass out as a Bro.) and he sees L. - which is restored to him - his eyes being fixed on the V.O.T.S.L. - the Greatest and Truest guide of our Fraternity with the S. and Cs. Symbols of Revelation and Creation.

Some Lodges have the V. open at Psalms 133, but if it be open at any of its pages it is perfectly in order.

The V.O.T.S.L. was in use in 1600 from an old Obligation “So Help me G. and the Holy contents of this BOOK.”

Brethren, to Freemasons the V.O.T.S.L., be it the Bible of the Christian, the Koran of the Mohammaden, the Zend Avesta of the Parsee, the Veda of the Hindu or the Tripitaka of the Buddhists, is the symbol of the Word of God, the Universal Father of all Mankind, who speaks to His children through many prophets in many tongues.

It may be of interest to quote the experiences of a Bro. who visited a Lodge in Bombay - he relates that when he attended an Initiation Ceremony there were five Bibles on the Altar, the M. was a Mohammaden, one of the Cs. who received the 1st D. was a Parsee, and the other a Hindu. The work was done in English in a “Dignified and impressive manner.”

From the whole ethical system as taught by St. Paul and from the Gospel of St. John and then in the Book of Revelations we find a wonderful picture of the prevailing Mysteries, winding like a golden thread throughout these beautiful Books. The spirit and aim of these writings is the story of our Craft to-day and must lead to a belief that our system is so much older than this, coming to the world in its earliest ages and retaining the power to impress upon the world of the present, as it has unswervingly done in the past, the fact of God the Creator and the call to obedience made to all Mankind.

Here Brethren is the commencement of the Second Part of the Ceremony called the “State of Light “ - seven more episodes:-

1. Revelation of the Greater and L. Lts.

2. The Entrustment with the Ss.

3. The Testing by the Ws.

4. The Investiture with the Clothing.

5. The Instruction in the N.E.

6. The Instruction in the W. T .... Is.

7. The Instruction in the T. B.

He has entered the “Hall of Truth in Lt.” or the Hall of Learning” and has become a “Son of Lux.”

He sees for the first time the S. and Cs.

The Sq. the symbol of Morality and the Cs. the emblem of Virtue, the true and only measure of the Bro’s. conduct

A BROTHER

It is then that the W.M. says “Rise D. Ob. Bro. a.....g Ms.” This is the moment that he is a Bro. The M. has said the words - which in the old phraseology “Have Made Him.”

He is placed on the R. of the W.M. and informed of the L. Ls.

He now stands Perfectly erect, his F. in the F. of a Sq. Symbolising UNDERSTANDING by the Sq. and in the Ancient days the upright body symbolises WILL

He sees the “G” denoting the Universal Spirit of G. unifying all things, it is found in the C. of the L.-the L. is grouped around it.

He now comes to the most important S., the 1st R.S. in F. According to the Ancient Masons - the first S. towards the Light - with the WILL to UNDERSTAND. He should bring the H. of the R. F. into the H. of the L. at an angle of 90 degrees, thus forming the correct regular S. - the Tau, signifying LIFE the 3 R.Ss. together forming the Union of the Taus - symbolic of the Deity.

The P. is the age old one of the Assyrians for Traitors, one of the original Forms of which there are four, Gutteral (1st Degree), Pectoral, Manual and Pedal. It was the most terrible P. to the oldest races to be cast into the waves, and not decently buried with proper rites and is symbolical of SPIRITUAL DEATH.

It is to be noted that the Old Operative 1st Degree P. was worded.

“Of having my t....... cut out under my c..n and of being buried within the flood mark where no man shall know.”

In the curious ordinances which were observed in the Reign of Henry VI for the conduct of the Court of Admiralty for the Humber, are enumerated various offences of a maritime connection, and their punishments. In view of the character of the Court, the punishment was generally to be inflicted at low-water mark, so as to be within the proper jurisdiction of the Admiralty, the chief officer of which, the Admiral of the Humber, being from the year 1451, the Mayor of Hull. The Court being met and consisting of “Masters Merchants and Mariners” with all others that do enjoy the King’s stream with hook, net, or any engine, were addressed thus:-

“You Masters of the quest, if you, or any of you, discover or disclose anything of the King’s secret counsel, or of the counsel of your fellows (for the present you are admitted to be King’s Counselors), you are to be, and shall be, had down to the low-water mark, where must be made three times, O Yes! for the King, and then and there this punishment, by the law prescribed shall be executed upon them; that is, their hands and feet bound, their throats cut, their tongues pulled out and their bodies thrown into the sea.”

The S. is the outward S. of an inner concept - a word - an image - a gesture - which tells - to one who is of the inner circle the whole story of a secret - a revelation Instantaneous. In the oldest times known as the Humbling S.

In the old Operating working - The G. was to be “concealed” and the S. to be “heled” and the word never to be “revealed.”

In the Cooke MSS. of 1490 the word “Hele” appears and is interpreted as “Must conceal.”

The wisdom of the old times records:- “Offer not your right hand easily to everyone - do not draw up - nor endeavour to raise by extending your R. hand to the unadopted and uninitiated.”

Among the Ancient peoples the Hand was the symbol of the Builders and in their very early art the Supreme Being was frequently depicted by a Hand extending from a Cloud in the act of Benediction - the R. hand is said to be the emblem of FIDELITY - the L. symbolical of EQUITY.

St. Paul speaks of “giving the R. hand of Fellowship.”

It is the accepted symbol of sincerity and a pledge of fidelity wherever Masons may meet over the surface of the world. The story we find in the V.O.T.S.L. at 11 Kings C. X. describes how one day King Jehu was driving his chariot along an Eastern road and on approaching Jehonadab the Son of Rechab, who was walking towards him, he stepped down and greeted him thus: “Is thy heart right, as my heart is with thy heart?” Jehonadab answered “It is.” Then said the King: “If it be, give me thine hand,” and he gave him his hand and he took him up into the chariot. That, I believe, is the first instance on record of a hand-grip used to cement a bond of brotherhood and friendship and the sign of mutual heart sympathy.

The s..., the g.... the w ... s, by which we greet each other, should not be the whole of Masonry, but, the overflowing passion for that, for which Masonry exists, the building of Man. The formal acts they represent may still be important to us, as revelations of the Ancient Law, but, there is something, which they represent, that is far greater, something, they do not express, that far transcends, in importance, word and sign perfection - the use of heat and hand in the gathering of the great stones, the powers of Society and Mankind, of which we build again the Temple that has crumbled by the neglect of man, and, yet more the Temple that is in the heavens, higher still than the wildest concept of those who have toiled, day and night, in all ages of Masonry, in order to ensure the accurate submission of Man to the Divine Law, to try to live, and by that life to fill the world with an atmosphere, which is a conscience, an influence not seen but felt, that does not rival, but fills all, pervades all, and leads to eternal Brotherhood.

In the N. the C. is now presented with a new name which is Bro. Caution.

The newly made Bro. now goes round the L. and what does he see -

The W.M.’s Pedestal - a double cube - the earliest Altar was a rough unhewn stone set up like the stone Jacob set up at Bethel when he dreamed of the Ladder to Heaven - to be approached by walking in the course of the sun - from the E. by way of the S. It is first of all an Altar of Faith - the deep eternal Faith which underlies all creeds and overarches all beliefs - Faith in T.G.A.O.T.U., the Moral Law and Life Everlasting.

The Altar of Masonry is an Altar of Freedom - the Freedom of Faith - beyond the fact of the reality of G. it does not go - allowing every man to think of G. according to his experience of life and his vision of truth - and - it is an Altar of Fellowship as if to teach us that no man can learn the truth for another and no man can learn it alone. Masonry brings men together in united respect, sympathy and goodwill.

He sees the L. a double cube - stands on the Mosaic Pavement in size a double cube - symbolically representing the various incidents of Life - symbol of Joy and Sorrow, prosperity and adversity - Rest and Peace - Life and Death - a Symbol of EARTH. In the old days bordered by the Signs of the Zodiac.

He sees the Blazing Star.

The Immovable jewels he will now meet are the Rough Ashlar - the Brute Stone - a symbol of man immature of mind and still rough and unpolished - the E.A.

The Perfect Ashlar - man educated, virtuous and rendered a fit member of well organized society - ready to be tried and approved by the Sq. of God’s Word, and the Cs of his own self convincing conscience.

They are called the - Silent Reminders” or “Silent Witnesses” of the design of Masonry for us.

In the old Lodges the T.B. was drawn in chalk each time the L. was opened, and obliterated at the close of the day. I read in an old book that in some Lodges, so careful were they “that no trace should be left” they used tape and little nails to form the T.B., thus preventing any marks or stains being discernable after the L. is closed.

The T.B. you know so well, Brethren, with Jacob’s Ladder blending Earth with Heaven - comprising the whole teaching of Freemasonry surmounted by the beautiful Cup of Charity (the Biblical meaning of Charity is Love) of which our Bro. is about to learn.

The two Columns, the S.W.’s of the Doric Order, surmounted by a Terrestrial Globe, typifying Strength of the Sun - and whose outlook is toward the Horizon. The J.W.’s of the Corinthian Order surmounted by a Celestial Globe typifying Beauty of the Moon - sometimes said to mark the Sun at the Meridian. The Column of the S.W. erect at Labour - the Sun shining and the work proceeding. The Column of the J.W. is Horizontal at Labour - when the labours cease the sun goes down and the Column of the Moon is then erect.

The W.M.’s column of Wisdom combines the Strength and Beauty of these two. The M’s. L. is never out, he is called to shine as a L. in the world, deriving his L. from above and his duty is to impart knowledge and instruction to the Brethren.

In the oldest religious ceremonies, the Fire, the Candle or the Torch is a symbol of the Presence of the Divine.

The C. is invested by the S.W.

The Masonic E.A. Apron is made of lamb skin, symbol of innocence (meaning “to do no harm or hurt”) and purity - the condition required of Cs. in all initiations. The shape of the Apron is that of a Perfect Sq. and Brethren when each one of you wore it for the first time it was with the flap raised - it being thus a Perfect Sq. (quarternery) surmounted by a Triangle (a Triad) indicating the five senses by its five corners, by means of which we enter into relations with the material world around us. Then we have the three - sided emblem at the top added to the four - sided emblem beneath making seven, the Perfect Number - Man the seven-fold Being - himself the Perfect Lodge. The triangle symbolises the Spirit and the Strength of the G.A.O.T.U. - the Sq. representing Matter - the Man - the Triangle the three-fold attributes of the ONE and the Sq. the four elements. The E.A. starts his career with the triangle surmounting the Sq. (Spirit has not yet descended into matter) you remember the first Investiture of the Badge of an E.A., as he progresses in the Science, the descent takes place.

The Apron of an E.A., Triangle uppermost, symbolizes the Spirit of God upon the Waters.

Another age - old symbol is to be found on each of you M.Ms., it is the Ancient Serpent of Wisdom and is placed on the bands of your respective aprons, so nothing seems to have been forgotten - the Badge of Innocence with the Circle of Wisdom strengthening and encircling the Bro.

Wisdom, Strength and Beauty together signifying HARMONY which “Spiritual Peace” and you all remember the admonition that the “Atmosphere of the Lodge must not be disturbed.”

Under the Canadian Constitution the E.A. is provided with his own E.A. Apron at the time of Initiation - this Apron is then placed in a sealed packet and is not worn again until his death. The Tyler keeps a box of aprons for the use of all the Brethren.

In America the Apron Charge ends:-

It is yours to wear throughout an honorable life and at your death deposited upon the coffin which shall enclose your lifeless remains and with them laid beneath the clods of the Valley.

In America when the S.W. says “It will never disgrace you,” the L. lead by the S.W. give what they call the “Great Shock” with their L. Hands, just as we do, accompanied simultaneously with a stamp with their L. feet - to impress upon the C. that he must for ever keep the King of Terrors beneath control. It is the first Salute we give him as a Bro., and he will not receive another until he is invested as an Off. in the L.

For Every Mason an Apron - for every Apron a Life - our symbolic gift to him - and his acceptance of it is his act of faith - and faith is the Certainty of the unknown - and in an old Ritual it is the “Gift of Brotherhood.”

The C. should now wear white gloves for without a pure heart and clean hands - no one can stand in a Holy place. A gloved hand in the Middle ages was considered the Symbol of Peace. In the N.E. corner he now stands in the position of Rectitude. In the Authors L. and in the Midlands the C. has placed in the Sq. of his F. the Rough Ashlar.

The questions of certain m. and m.s. now arise - the absence of which has played so important a part in the Ceremony. It has become the C.’s business to learn that he is now amidst a different standard of values and when he comes again into possession of the old tokens he has to realize that their most important use is in causes not his own - this little episode so deeply and sincerely impressed by the W.M. assisted by the J.D. is called the “Rite of Destitution.”

In the Ancient days the C. was told that he is to tread sure in the N.E. Corner - as he stands on the foundation corner of the building and that when the ravages of time or violence may have destroyed every vestige of the superstructure, that stone, when it is discovered, will prove that such a building did exist and that when he stands amidst depravity of manners, and the dangers of infection he will preserve his mind and memory uncontaminated - setting an example of the life he starts from the moment he departs from that spot.

An E.A. should serve his M. with Freedom, Fervency and Zeal - the three “Qualifications of Servitude.”

Freedom - Chalk. Fervency - Charcoal, and Zeal - Clay (Earth) and are known as the “ Excellent Qualities.”

A Lewis in the L. denotes Strength and is found in the Perfect Ashlar - which should be suspended - the line suspending it is the symbol of the Thread of Life - Perfect Man and T.G.A.O.T.U.

The Gavel - the symbol of Order - and in the hands of the W.M. in the old days called “Hiram” - in the words of a ritual “As K. S. controlled the workman by the assistance of Hiram the Builder” to the E.A. it symbolizes “Obedience.”

The Rule (24” Gauge) is the symbol to measure our work in the world - the G.A.O.T.U. has assigned hours for labour and hours for refreshment beyond the possibility of mistake and this is the “ETERNAL RULE.”

He must be aided by the Chisel of Education - and the Common Gavel - the force of conscience - these together remind us that persistent Endeavour is necessary to the attainment of the True Sq. and polish of the Perfect Ashlar. It has been beautifully expressed by a famous sculptor who, when asked how he carved rough masses of stone into lovely statues, said - “I merely knock away with gavel and chisel the stone I do not need and the statue is there - it was there all the time - I only found it.” In the V.O.T.S.L. “The Kingdom of Heaven is within you” - the perfection is there in him just as the Perfect Ashlar is within the Rough Ashlar.

So you see by taking just the Key Symbols, Morality and Virtue, in walking the Earth clothed in the White Apron throughout the Eternal Rule (which is Life), by persistent endeavour he reaches Perfection.

In the Bristol working when the C. returns to the L., having restored his personal comforts, he is told to sit at a table and to write the word - if he attempts to do so a gong is sounded and discord from the organ makes a din - his fingers are rapped and he is shown a man with his T. cut acc. His proper answer should be “I was told to be C..s”

He will hear of Jacob’s Ladder - which has been handed down for our instruction - the foot of which is placed on the earth and with the foundation of the V.O.T.S.L. denoting the Stability of Providence - the top reaching to the Heaven, to show us that the designs of the G.A. are without limit - He will be told of F. H. and C. three of the Great Rungs past which he will have, to climb proving himself possessed of these virtues - that he has the first, he has shown.

The Spiritual Ladder of Ascent from Earth to Heaven with the Threefold way - through Active Life - the way a of Purification, the first. Through Inner Life, way of Illumination, the second. Through Contemplative Life, the Unitive way to attain true Friendship with the G.A. - the third.

Bro. L., R., and T., the Three Staves, the foundation and copestone - the cement and glory of this Ancient Fraternity, and Brethren you remember the words “not derogatory to exchange the scepter for the trowel,” in early workings the Trowel was the emblem of Circumspection” and was called the “Jewel of the E.A.” He was extolled “Emblematically to stop up all interstices in the L. so that not a sound shall escape from within nor an eye pry from without, whereby our secrets and mysteries may become known to the popular world. This is from a Ritual of 1735 but is not included in our modern workings.

Our Ancient Charge depicting the duties of the Bros. of the Mystic Tie - the Threefold Tie - uniting Man with God, his Fellowmen and with himself - linking his life with the eternal enterprise - breaking the loneliness and organizing us in spiritual faith and a common high endeavour - whose golden rule is:-

“Help me to need no aid from men

That I may aid such men as need.”

From: My New Cut Ashlar.

Songs from Books by Bro. Rudyard Kipling.

Bro. Rudyard Kipling’s advice is “ To know the ritual is not to know all - it is the inside meaning, not the words, that count - learn the words but get the Ritual into your spirit.” Except he serve, no man may rule.

Bro. Kipling was initiated in the Lodge of Hope and Perseverance No. 782 in 1885 at the age of 19 at Lahore. This L. works its secrets, its lessons and its ceremonies through a stately ritual unwritten and handed down through the ages. His “The Mother L.” is a wonderful picture of the Brethren.

So, Brethren, the Ceremony of our First Degree is a swift and comprehensive portrayal of the entrance of all men - into, firstly Physical Life, and secondly, into Spiritual Life, who have undertaken to acquire the Symbolical and spiritualised art of building the house of another life which starts at the moment of Initiation and the dawn of a new understanding. He will be a Mason as long as memory lasts.

I would suggest that our ceremonies are parts of an orderly tradition, unfolding through the centuries and emanating from the ancient secret Fraternities perpetuating the esoteric doctrines of antiquity - for I believe civilisation is unfolding to a predetermined plan, part of which, and an essential part is the discipline of each of us so that we can contribute to the final perfection of the whole by our influence in act and deed - by that spiritual communion of our great Brotherhood.

Brethren, we will leave our Bro. E.A. on the first of those steps in his Craft Journey - having learnt of the L.H. Pillar, which symbolises Space and Creation - he will climb further and progress to the 2nd Degree in which he will learn of the R.H. Pillar which symbolises Time and Regeneration and Pass between them on to the Path of Life, the Path that leads from the physical realm to the Spiritual realm along which he will travel to the 3rd Degree, which will bring him to the “Great Light” as the old Masters have it “To the Light of the Higher Understanding” unto the “Halls of Wisdom.”

Thus we extend our congratulations and always receive with acclamation every newly - made Bro. and we trust that the tesselated pavement will ever remain to him as bright as when it first came from the quarries of Truth - the jewels ever brighten at his touch and the Great Lights remain undimmed and undecayed to eternity.

Our Fratemity admits of no innovation or variation - as it was in the beginning - it is now - and ever shall be - into the ages of ages.

And Brethren, as a final word may I say that we cannot all be rich or famous, but we can each be loyal and true of heart, undefiled by evil and undaunted by error, faithful and helpful to our Fellowmen, no voice of distress ever reaching our ears in vain and no hand seeking our assistance without response. We shall then know how to pray, how to love, and how to hope, and only then shall we be glad to live and not afraid to die.

S. M. I. B.